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  1. Abstract

    Urban vegetation experiences multiple natural and human impacts during urbanization, including land conversion, local environmental factors, and human management, which may bring positive or negative impacts on vegetation gross primary productivity (GPP) at multiple scales. In this study, we analyzed the spatial-temporal changes of GPP and three urbanization factors: land urbanization (impervious surface coverage), population urbanization (Population), and economic urbanization Gross domestic product (GDP) at city-district-grid scales in Beijing during 2000–2018. Overall, both GPP and three urbanization factors showed an increased trend. The relationships between GPP and urbanization factors exhibit diverse characteristics at multiple scales: unlike the linear relationship observed at city scale, the relationships at district and grid scales all demonstrated nonlinear relationship, even a U shape between GPP and population/GDP. Furthermore, the positive impact of urbanization on GPP increased and offset the negative impact of land conversion from 9.9% in 2000 to 35% in 2018, indicating that urban management and climate during urbanization effectively promote vegetation photosynthesis and neutralize the negative impact of urban area expansion. Our findings highlight the increased growth offset by urbanization on vegetation and the importance of analysis at a finer scale. Understanding these urbanization types’ impact on vegetation is pivotal in formulating comprehensive strategies that foster sustainable urban development and preserve ecological balance.

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  2. Nanoindentation performed with a conospherical tip on the (100) face of cytosine monohydrate (CM) revealed a highly anisotropic response over a range of loads. Post-indent atomic force microscopy images identified an asymmetric deformation response owing to the pro-chiral structure of the surface. Activation of low rugosity slip planes induces movement of π-stacks rather than their displacement along the 1-dimensional hydrogen bonded ribbon direction. Anisotropy arises because slip can only propagate to one side of the indent, as the tip itself imparts a barrier to slip on the preferred plane thereby forcing the activation of secondary slip systems and pileup. The anisotropic deformation is of interest in relation to previous work which proposed a ribbon–rotation model to account for the topotactic conversion between CM and the product of its dehydration. The asymmetry in the nanomechanical properties exhibited by CM provides further support for the rotational model put forth and also serves to underscore the inherent relationship between a hydrate's mechanical properties and its solid state dehydration mechanism. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 22, 2024
  3. The use of bioelectronic devices relies on direct contact with soft biotissues. For transistor-type bioelectronic devices, the semiconductors that need to have direct interfacing with biotissues for effective signal transduction do not adhere well with wet tissues, thereby limiting the stability and conformability at the interface. We report a bioadhesive polymer semiconductor through a double-network structure formed by a bioadhesive brush polymer and a redox-active semiconducting polymer. The resulting semiconducting film can form rapid and strong adhesion with wet tissue surfaces together with high charge-carrier mobility of ~1 square centimeter per volt per second, high stretchability, and good biocompatibility. Further fabrication of a fully bioadhesive transistor sensor enabled us to produce high-quality and stable electrophysiological recordings on an isolated rat heart and in vivo rat muscles.

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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 11, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Soft and stretchable electronics have emerged as highly promising tools for biomedical diagnosis and biological studies, as they interface intimately with the human body and other biological systems. Most stretchable electronic materials and devices, however, still have Young’s moduli orders of magnitude higher than soft bio-tissues, which limit their conformability and long-term biocompatibility. Here, we present a design strategy of soft interlayer for allowing the use of existing stretchable materials of relatively high moduli to versatilely realize stretchable devices with ultralow tissue-level moduli. We have demonstrated stretchable transistor arrays and active-matrix circuits with moduli below 10 kPa—over two orders of magnitude lower than the current state of the art. Benefiting from the increased conformability to irregular and dynamic surfaces, the ultrasoft device created with the soft interlayer design realizes electrophysiological recording on an isolated heart with high adaptability, spatial stability, and minimal influence on ventricle pressure. In vivo biocompatibility tests also demonstrate the benefit of suppressing foreign-body responses for long-term implantation. With its general applicability to diverse materials and devices, this soft-interlayer design overcomes the material-level limitation for imparting tissue-level softness to a variety of bioelectronic devices.

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