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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 6, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 28, 2023
  3. Maex, Reinoud (Ed.)
    Semiparametric joint models of longitudinal and competing risk data are computationally costly, and their current implementations do not scale well to massive biobank data. This paper identifies and addresses some key computational barriers in a semiparametric joint model for longitudinal and competing risk survival data. By developing and implementing customized linear scan algorithms, we reduce the computational complexities from O n 2 or O n 3 to O n in various steps including numerical integration, risk set calculation, and standard error estimation, where n is the number of subjects. Using both simulated and real-world biobank data, we demonstrate that these linear scan algorithms can speed up the existing methods by a factor of up to hundreds of thousands when n > 1 0 4 , often reducing the runtime from days to minutes. We have developed an R package, FastJM, based on the proposed algorithms for joint modeling of longitudinal and competing risk time-to-event data and made it publicly available on the Comprehensive R Archive Network (CRAN).
  4. Impaired mitochondrial function can lead to senescence and the ageing phenotype. Theory predicts degenerative ageing phenotypes and mitochondrial pathologies may occur more frequently in males due to the matrilineal inheritance pattern of mitochondrial DNA observed in most eukaryotes. Here, we estimated the sex-specific longevity for parental and reciprocal F1 hybrid crosses for inbred lines derived from two allopatric Tigriopus californicus populations with over 20% mitochondrial DNA divergence. T. californicus lacks sex chromosomes allowing for more direct testing of mitochondrial function in sex-specific ageing. To better understand the ageing mechanism, we estimated two age-related phenotypes (mtDNA content and 8-hydroxy-20-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) DNA damage) at two time points in the lifespan. Sex differences in lifespan depended on the mitochondrial and nuclear backgrounds, including differences between reciprocal F1 crosses which have different mitochondrial haplotypes on a 50 : 50 nuclear background, with nuclear contributions coming from alternative parents. Young females showed the highest mtDNA content which decreased with age, while DNA damage in males increased with age and exceed that of females 56 days after hatching. The adult sex ratio was male-biased and was attributed to complex mitonuclear interactions. Results thus demonstrate that sex differences in ageing depend on mitonuclear interactions in the absencemore »of sex chromosomes.« less