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  1. Abstract This study quantifies the contributions of tropical sea surface temperature (SST) variations during the boreal warm season to the interannual-to-decadal variability in tropical cyclone genesis frequency (TCGF) over the Northern Hemisphere ocean basins. The first seven leading modes of tropical SST variability are found to affect basinwide TCGF in one or more basins, and are related to canonical El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO), global warming (GW), the Pacific meridional mode (PMM), Atlantic multidecadal oscillation (AMO), Pacific decadal oscillation (PDO), and the Atlantic meridional mode (AMM). These modes account for approximately 58%, 50%, and 56% of the variance in basinwide TCGF during 1969–2018 over the North Atlantic (NA), northeast Pacific (NEP), and northwest Pacific (NWP) Oceans, respectively. The SST effect is weak on TCGF variability in the north Indian Ocean. The SST modes dominating TCGF variability differ among the basins: ENSO, the AMO, AMM, and GW are dominant for the NA; ENSO and the AMO for the NEP; and the PMM, interannual AMO, and GW for the NWP. A specific mode may have opposite effects on TCGF in different basins, particularly between the NA and NEP. Sliding-window multiple linear regression analyses show that the SST effects on basinwide TCGF are stablemore »in time in the NA and NWP, but have strengthened since the 1990s in the NEP. The SST effects on local TC genesis and occurrence frequency are also explored, and the underlying physical mechanisms are examined by diagnosing a genesis potential index and its components.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 15, 2023
  2. The operation and maintenance of infrastructure components and systems can be modeled as a Markov process, partially or fully observable. Information about the current condition can be summarized by the “inner” state of a finite state controller. When a control policy is assigned, the stochastic evolution of the system is completely described by a Markov transition function. This article applies finite state Markov chain analyses to identify relevant features of the time evolution of a controlled system. We focus on assessing if some critical conditions are reachable (or if some actions will ever be taken), in identifying the probability of these critical events occurring within a time period, their expected time of occurrence, their long-term frequency, and the probability that some events occur before others. We present analytical methods based on linear algebra to address these questions, discuss their computational complexity and the structure of the solution. The analyses can be performed after a policy is selected for a Markov decision process (MDP) or a partially observable MDP. Their outcomes depend on the selected policy and examining these outcomes can provide the decision makers with deeper understanding of the consequences of following that policy, and may also suggest revising it.
  3. null (Ed.)
    Artificial muscles based on stimuli-responsive polymers usually exhibit mechanical compliance, versatility, and high power-to-weight ratio, showing great promise to potentially replace conventional rigid motors for next-generation soft robots, wearable electronics, and biomedical devices. In particular, thermomechanical liquid crystal elastomers (LCEs) constitute artificial muscle-like actuators that can be remotely triggered for large stroke, fast response, and highly repeatable actuations. Here, we introduce a digital light processing (DLP)–based additive manufacturing approach that automatically shear aligns mesogenic oligomers, layer-by-layer, to achieve high orientational order in the photocrosslinked structures; this ordering yields high specific work capacity (63 J kg −1 ) and energy density (0.18 MJ m −3 ). We demonstrate actuators composed of these DLP printed LCEs’ applications in soft robotics, such as reversible grasping, untethered crawling, and weightlifting. Furthermore, we present an LCE self-sensing system that exploits thermally induced optical transition as an intrinsic option toward feedback control.
  4. Abstract

    Neurotransmitter is released synchronously and asynchronously following an action potential. Our recent study indicates that the release sites of these two phases are segregated within an active zone, with asynchronous release sites enriched near the center in mouse hippocampal synapses. Here we demonstrate that synchronous and asynchronous release sites are aligned with AMPA receptor and NMDA receptor clusters, respectively. Computational simulations indicate that this spatial and temporal arrangement of release can lead to maximal membrane depolarization through AMPA receptors, alleviating the pore-blocking magnesium leading to greater activation of NMDA receptors. Together, these results suggest that release sites are likely organized to activate NMDA receptors efficiently.