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  1. Abstract Despite the extensive developments of flexible capacitive pressure sensors, it is still elusive to simultaneously achieve excellent linearity over a broad pressure range, high sensitivity, and ultrahigh pressure resolution under large pressure preloads. Here, we present a programmable fabrication method for microstructures to integrate an ultrathin ionic layer. The resulting optimized sensor exhibits a sensitivity of 33.7 kPa −1 over a linear range of 1700 kPa, a detection limit of 0.36 Pa, and a pressure resolution of 0.00725% under the pressure of 2000 kPa. Taken together with rapid response/recovery and excellent repeatability, the sensor is applied to subtle pulse detection, interactive robotic hand, and ultrahigh-resolution smart weight scale/chair. The proposed fabrication approaches and design toolkit from this work can also be leveraged to easily tune the pressure sensor performance for varying target applications and open up opportunities to create other iontronic sensors. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 31, 2024
  3. Fernandez-Valverde, Selene L. (Ed.)
    Both the composition of cell types and their spatial distribution in a tissue play a critical role in cellular function, organ development, and disease progression. For example, intratumor heterogeneity and the distribution of transcriptional and genetic events in single cells drive the genesis and development of cancer. However, it can be challenging to fully characterize the molecular profile of cells in a tissue with high spatial resolution because microscopy has limited ability to extract comprehensive genomic information, and the spatial resolution of genomic techniques tends to be limited by dissection. There is a growing need for tools that can be used to explore the relationship between histological features, gene expression patterns, and spatially correlated genomic alterations in healthy and diseased tissue samples. Here, we present a technique that combines label-free histology with spatially resolved multiomics in unfixed and unstained tissue sections. This approach leverages stimulated Raman scattering microscopy to provide chemical contrast that reveals histological tissue architecture, allowing for high-resolution in situ laser microdissection of regions of interests. These microtissue samples are then processed for DNA and RNA sequencing to identify unique genetic profiles that correspond to distinct anatomical regions. We demonstrate the capabilities of this technique by mapping gene expression and copy number alterations to histologically defined regions in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Our approach provides complementary insights in tumorigenesis and offers an integrative tool for macroscale cancer tissues with spatial multiomics assessments. 
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  4. Abstract

    Advances in single-cell technologies allow scrutinizing of heterogeneous cell states, however, detecting cell-state transitions from snap-shot single-cell transcriptome data remains challenging. To investigate cells with transient properties or mixed identities, we present MuTrans, a method based on multiscale reduction technique to identify the underlying stochastic dynamics that prescribes cell-fate transitions. By iteratively unifying transition dynamics across multiple scales, MuTrans constructs the cell-fate dynamical manifold that depicts progression of cell-state transitions, and distinguishes stable and transition cells. In addition, MuTrans quantifies the likelihood of all possible transition trajectories between cell states using coarse-grained transition path theory. Downstream analysis identifies distinct genes that mark the transient states or drive the transitions. The method is consistent with the well-established Langevin equation and transition rate theory. Applying MuTrans to datasets collected from five different single-cell experimental platforms, we show its capability and scalability to robustly unravel complex cell fate dynamics induced by transition cells in systems such as tumor EMT, iPSC differentiation and blood cell differentiation. Overall, our method bridges data-driven and model-based approaches on cell-fate transitions at single-cell resolution.

     
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  5. Abstract

    Highly sensitive and multimodal sensors have recently emerged for a wide range of applications, including epidermal electronics, robotics, health‐monitoring devices and human–machine interfaces. However, cross‐sensitivity prevents accurate measurements of the target input signals when a multiple of them are simultaneously present. Therefore, the selection of the multifunctional materials and the design of the sensor structures play a significant role in multimodal sensors with decoupled sensing mechanisms. Hence, this review article introduces varying methods to decouple different input signals for realizing truly multimodal sensors. Early efforts explore different outputs to distinguish the corresponding input signals applied to the sensor in sequence. Next, this study discusses the methods for the suppression of the interference, signal correction, and various decoupling strategies based on different outputs to simultaneously detect multiple inputs. The recent insights into the materials' properties, structure effects, and sensing mechanisms in recognition of different input signals are highlighted. The presence of the various decoupling methods also helps avoid the use of complicated signal processing steps and allows multimodal sensors with high accuracy for applications in bioelectronics, robotics, and human–machine interfaces. Finally, current challenges and potential opportunities are discussed in order to motivate future technological breakthroughs.

     
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