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  1. Supermassive stars (SMSs) with masses of 𝑀∗ ≃ 104–105 M⊙ are invoked as possible seeds of high-redshift supermassive black holes, but it remains under debate whether their protostar indeed acquires sufficient mass via gas accretion overcoming radiative feedback. We investigate protostellar growth in dynamically heated atomic-cooling haloes (ACHs) found in recent cosmological simulations, performing three-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical (RHD) simulations that consider stellar evolution under variable mass accretion. We find that one of the ACHs feeds the central protostar at rates exceeding a critical value, above which the star evolves in a cool bloating phase and hardly produces ionizing photons. Consequently, the stellar mass reaches 𝑀∗ 􏰁 104 M⊙ unimpeded by radiative feedback. In the other ACH, where the mass supply rate is lower, the star spends most of its life as a hot main-sequence star, emitting intense ionizing radiation. Then, the stellar mass growth is terminated around 500 M⊙ by photoevaporation of the circumstellar disk. A series of our RHD simulations provide a formula of the final stellar mass determined either by stellar feedback or their lifetime as a function of the mass supply rate from the parent cloud in the absence of stellar radiation. Combining the results with themore »statistical properties of SMS-forming clouds in high-redshift quasar progenitor haloes, we construct a top-heavy mass distribution of primordial stars over 𝑀∗ ≃ 100–105 M⊙, approximately following a power-law spectrum of ∝ 𝑀−1.3 with a steeper decline at 𝑀 􏰁 2 × 104 M . Their massive BH remnants would be ∗∗⊙ further fed via the dense debris disk, powering “milli-quasars" with a bolometric luminosity of 𝐿bol 􏰁 1043 erg s−1.« less
  2. Observations of the most luminous quasars at high redshifts (z > 6) have revealed that the largest supermassive black holes (SMBHs) at those epochs tend to be substantially overmassive relative to their host galaxies compared to the local relations, suggesting they experienced rapid early growth phases. We propose an assembly model for the SMBHs that end up in rare massive ∼ 1012 M⊙ host halos at z ∼ 6−7, applying a kinetic feedback prescription for BHs accreting above the Eddington rate, provided by radiation hydrodynamic simulations for the long-term evolution of the accretion-flow structure. The large inflow rates into these halos during their assembly enable the formation of > 109 M⊙ SMBHs by z ∼ 6, even starting from stellar-mass seeds at z ∼ 30, and even in the presence of outflows that reduce the BH feeding rate, especially at early times. This mechanism also naturally yields a high BH-to-galaxy mass ratio of > 0.01 before the SMBH mass reaches MBH > 109 M⊙ by z ∼ 6. These fast-growing SMBH progenitors are bright enough to be detected by upcoming observations with the James Webb Space Telescope over a wide range of redshift (7 < z < 15), regardless ofmore »how they were seeded.« less