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  1. Abstract NONEXPRESSER OF PATHOGENESIS-RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1) is the master regulator of salicylic acid-mediated basal and systemic acquired resistance in plants. Here, we report that NPR1 plays a pivotal role in restricting compatible infection by turnip mosaic virus, a member of the largest plant RNA virus genus Potyvirus , and that such resistance is counteracted by NUCLEAR INCLUSION B (NIb), the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. We demonstrate that NIb binds to the SUMO-interacting motif 3 (SIM3) of NPR1 to prevent SUMO3 interaction and sumoylation, while sumoylation of NIb by SUMO3 is not essential but can intensify the NIb–NPR1 interaction. We discover that the interaction also impedes the phosphorylation of NPR1 at Ser11/Ser15. Moreover, we show that targeting NPR1 SIM3 is a conserved ability of NIb from diverse potyviruses. These data reveal a molecular “arms race” by which potyviruses deploy NIb to suppress NPR1-mediated resistance through disrupting NPR1 sumoylation. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
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  4. All van der Waals Fe 3 GeTe 2 /Cr 2 Ge 2 Te 6 /graphite magnetic heterojunctions have been fabricated via mechanical exfoliation and stacking, and their magnetotransport properties are studied in detail. At low bias voltages, large negative junction magnetoresistances have been observed and are attributed to spin-conserving tunneling transport across an insulating Cr 2 Ge 2 Te 6 layer. With increasing bias, a crossover to Fowler–Nordheim tunneling takes place. The negative sign of the tunneling magnetoresistance suggests that the bottom of a conduction band in Cr 2 Ge 2 Te 6 belongs to minority spins, opposite to the findings of some first-principles calculations. This work shows that the vdW heterostructures based on 2D magnetic insulators are a valuable platform to gain further insight into spin polarized tunneling transport, which is the basis for pursuing high performance spintronic devices and a large variety of quantum phenomena. 
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  5. We consider the problem of synthesizing good-enough (GE)-strategies for linear temporal logic (LTL) over finite traces or LTLf for short.The problem of synthesizing GE-strategies for an LTL formula φ over infinite traces reduces to the problem of synthesizing winning strategies for the formula (∃Oφ)⇒φ where O is the set of propositions controlled by the system.We first prove that this reduction does not work for LTLf formulas.Then we show how to synthesize GE-strategies for LTLf formulas via the Good-Enough (GE)-synthesis of LTL formulas.Unfortunately, this requires to construct deterministic parity automata on infinite words, which is computationally expensive.We then show how to synthesize GE-strategies for LTLf formulas by a reduction to solving games played on deterministic Büchi automata, based on an easier construction of deterministic automata on finite words.We show empirically that our specialized synthesis algorithm for GE-strategies outperforms the algorithms going through GE-synthesis of LTL formulas by orders of magnitude.

     
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  6. Abstract Higher-order exceptional points have attracted increased attention in recent years due to their enhanced sensitivity and distinct topological features. Here, we show that non-local acoustic metagratings enabling precise and simultaneous control over their multiple orders of diffraction can serve as a robust platform for investigating higher-order exceptional points in free space. The proposed metagratings, not only could advance the fundamental research of arbitrary order exceptional points, but could also empower unconventional free-space wave manipulation for applications related to sensing and extremely asymmetrical wave control. 
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  7. null (Ed.)
    The superoxide dismutases (SODs) play vital roles in controlling cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are generated both under optimal as well as stress conditions in plants. The rice genome harbors seven SOD genes (CSD1, CSD2, CSD3, CSD4, FSD1, FSD2, and MSD) that encode seven constitutive transcripts. Of these, five (CSD2, CSD3, CSD4, FSD1, and MSD) utilizes an alternative splicing (AS) strategy and generate seven additional splice variants (SVs) or mRNA variants, i.e., three for CSD3, and one each for CSD2, CSD4, FSD1, and MSD. The exon-intron organization of these SVs revealed variations in the number and length of exons and/or untranslated regions (UTRs). We determined the expression patterns of SVs along with their constitutive forms of SODs in rice seedlings exposed to salt, osmotic, cold, heavy metal (Cu+2) stresses, as well as copper-deprivation. The results revealed that all seven SVs were transcriptionally active in both roots and shoots. When compared to their corresponding constitutive transcripts, the profiles of five SVs were almost similar, while two specific SVs (CSD3-SV4 and MSD-SV2) differed significantly, and the differences were also apparent between shoots and roots suggesting that the specific SVs are likely to play important roles in a tissue-specific and stress-specific manner. Overall, the present study has provided a comprehensive analysis of the SVs of SODs and their responses to stress conditions in shoots and roots of rice seedlings. 
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