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  1. Graphene aerogel (GA), a 3D carbon-based nanostructure built on 2D graphene sheets, is well known for being the lightest solid material ever synthesized. It also possesses many other exceptional properties, such as high specific surface area and large liquid absorption capacity, thanks to its ultra-high porosity. Computationally, the mechanical properties of GA have been studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, which uncover nanoscale mechanisms beyond experimental observations. However, studies on how GA structures and properties evolve in response to simulation parameter changes, which provide valuable insights to experimentalists, have been lacking. In addition, the differences between the calculated properties via simulations and experimental measurements have rarely been discussed. To address the shortcomings mentioned above, in this study, we systematically study various mechanical properties and the structural integrity of GA as a function of a wide range of simulation parameters. Results show that during the in silico GA preparation, smaller and less spherical inclusions (mimicking the effect of water clusters in experiments) are conducive to strength and stiffness but may lead to brittleness. Additionally, it is revealed that a structurally valid GA in the MD simulation requires the number of bonds per atom to be at least 1.40, otherwise the GAmore »building blocks are not fully interconnected. Finally, our calculation results are compared with experiments to showcase both the power and the limitations of the simulation technique. This work may shed light on the improvement of computational approaches for GA as well as other novel nanomaterials.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 23, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  4. The security of the Autonomous Driving (AD) system has been gaining researchers’ and public’s attention recently. Given that AD companies have invested a huge amount of resources in developing their AD models, e.g., localization models, these models, especially their parameters, are important intellectual property and deserve strong protection. In thiswork,we examine whether the confidentiality of productiongrade Multi-Sensor Fusion (MSF) models, in particular, Error-State Kalman Filter (ESKF), can be stolen from an outside adversary. We propose a new model extraction attack called TaskMaster that can infer the secret ESKF parameters under black-box assumption. In essence, TaskMaster trains a substitutional ESKF model to recover the parameters, by observing the input and output to the targeted AD system. To precisely recover the parameters, we combine a set of techniques, like gradient-based optimization, search-space reduction and multi-stage optimization. The evaluation result on real-world vehicle sensor dataset shows that TaskMaster is practical. For example, with 25 seconds AD sensor data for training, the substitutional ESKF model reaches centimeter-level accuracy, comparing with the ground-truth model.