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  1. ABSTRACT We analyse Gaia EDR3 and re-calibrated HST proper motion data from the core-collapsed and non-core-collapsed globular clusters NGC 6397 and NGC 3201, respectively, with the Bayesian mass-orbit modelling code MAMPOSSt-PM. We use Bayesian evidence and realistic mock data sets constructed with Agama to select between different mass models. In both clusters, the velocities are consistent with isotropy within the extent of our data. We robustly detect a dark central mass (DCM) of roughly $1000\, \rm M_\odot$ in both clusters. Our MAMPOSSt-PM fits strongly prefer an extended DCM in NGC 6397, while only presenting a mild preference for it in NGC 3201, with respective sizes of a roughly one and a few per cent of the cluster effective radius. We explore the astrophysics behind our results with the CMC Monte Carlo N-body code, whose snapshots best matching the phase space observations lead to similar values for the mass and size of the DCM. The internal kinematics are thus consistent with a population of hundreds of massive white dwarfs in NGC 6397, and roughly 100 segregated stellar-mass black holes in NGC 3201, as previously found with CMC. Such analyses confirm the accuracy of both mass-orbit modelling and Monte Carlo N-body techniques, which together provide more robust predictionsmore »on the DCM of globular clusters (core-collapsed or not). This opens possibilities to understand a vast range of interesting astrophysical phenomena in clusters, such as fast radio bursts, compact object mergers, and gravitational waves.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 10, 2023
  2. Abstract A number of studies based on the data collected by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) GO-13297 program “HST Legacy Survey of Galactic Globular Clusters: Shedding UV Light on Their Populations and Formation” have investigated the photometric properties of a large sample of Galactic globular clusters and revolutionized our understanding of their stellar populations. In this paper, we expand upon previous studies by focusing our attention on the stellar clusters’ internal kinematics. We computed proper motions for stars in 56 globular clusters and one open cluster by combining the GO-13297 images with archival HST data. The astrophotometric catalogs released with this paper represent the most complete and homogeneous collection of proper motions of stars in the cores of stellar clusters to date, and expand the information provided by the current (and future) Gaia data releases to much fainter stars and into the crowded central regions. We also census the general kinematic properties of stellar clusters by computing the velocity dispersion and anisotropy radial profiles of their bright members. We study the dependence on concentration and relaxation time, and derive dynamical distances. Finally, we present an in-depth kinematic analysis of the globular cluster NGC 5904.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  3. Abstract

    We present deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) photometry of the ultra-faint dwarf (UFD) galaxies Pegasus III (Peg III) and Pisces II (Psc II), two of the most distant satellites in the halo of the Milky Way (MW). We measure the structure of both galaxies, derive mass-to-light ratios with newly determined absolute magnitudes, and compare our findings to expectations from UFD-mass simulations. For Peg III, we find an elliptical half-light radius ofah=1.′880.33+0.42(11830+31pc) andMV=4.170.22+0.19;for Psc II, we measureah=1.′310.09+0.10(69 ± 8 pc) andMV=4.280.16+0.19. We do not find any morphological features that indicate a significant interaction between the two has occurred, despite their close separation of only ∼40 kpc. Using proper motions (PMs) from Gaia early Data Release 3, we investigate the possibility of any past association by integrating orbits for the two UFDs in an MW-only and a combined MW and Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) potential. We find that including the gravitational influence of the LMC is crucial, even for these outer-halo satellites, and that a possible orbital history exists where Peg III and Psc II experienced a close (∼10–20 kpc) passage about each other just overmore »∼1 Gyr ago, followed by a collective passage around the LMC (∼30–60 kpc) just under ∼1 Gyr ago. Considering the large uncertainties on the PMs and the restrictive priors imposed to derive them, improved PM measurements for Peg III and Psc II will be necessary to clarify their relationship. This would add to the rare findings of confirmed pairs of satellites within the Local Group.

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  4. Abstract

    We observe the brightest member of the Praesepe cluster,ϵCnc, to precisely measure the characteristics of the stars in this binary system, en route to a new measurement of the cluster’s age. We present spectroscopic radial velocity measurements and interferometric observations of the sky-projected orbit to derive the masses, which we find to beM1/M= 2.420 ± 0.008 andM2/M= 2.226 ± 0.004. We place limits on the color–magnitude positions of the stars by using spectroscopic and interferometric luminosity ratios while trying to reproduce the spectral energy distribution ofϵCnc. We reexamine the cluster membership of stars at the bright end of the color–magnitude diagram using Gaia data and literature radial velocity information. The binary star data are consistent with an age of 637 ± 19 Myr, as determined from MIST model isochrones. The masses and luminosities of the stars appear to select models with the most commonly used amount of convective core overshooting.