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  1. Flat lenses with focal length tunability can enable the development of highly integrated imaging systems. This work explores machine learning to inverse design a multifocal multilevel diffractive lens (MMDL) by wavelength multiplexing. The MMDL output is multiplexed in three color channels, red (650 nm), green (550 nm), and blue (450 nm), to achieve varied focal lengths of 4 mm, 20 mm, and 40 mm at these three color channels, respectively. The focal lengths of the MMDL scale significantly with the wavelength in contrast to conventional diffractive lenses. The MMDL consists of concentric rings with equal widths and varied heights. The machine learning method is utilized to optimize the height of each concentric ring to obtain the desired phase distribution so as to achieve varied focal lengths multiplexed by wavelengths. The designed MMDL is fabricated through a direct-write laser lithography system with gray-scale exposure. The demonstrated singlet lens is miniature and polarization insensitive, and thus can potentially be applied in integrated optical imaging systems to achieve zooming functions.

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  2. Abstract

    Machine learning can empower the design of cascaded diffractive optical elements (DOEs) at terahertz frequencies enabling the realization of holograms with a tailored multi‐degree‐of‐freedom reconfigurable operation when altering either the number, spacing, rotational alignment, and/or order of the elements. This unprecedented control over the spatial terahertz light distribution can profoundly impact multiple terahertz applications such as signal multiplexing, imaging, and displays. This work demonstrates this multi‐degree‐of‐freedom control in structures fabricated through 3D printing employing low‐loss materials. The designs are validated through 3D finite‐difference time‐domain (FDTD) simulations and experimental measurements, showing that, in all cases, the desired diffraction patterns are generated.

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