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Creators/Authors contains: "Lin, Hsin"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 9, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  4. Abstract Most topological insulators (TIs) discovered today in spinful systems can be transformed from topological semimetals (TSMs) with vanishing bulk gap via introducing the spin-orbit coupling (SOC), which manifests the intrinsic links between the gapped topological insulator phases and the gapless TSMs. Recently, we have discovered a family of TSMs in time-reversal invariant spinless systems, which host butterfly-like nodal-lines (NLs) consisting of a pair of identical concentric intersecting coplanar ellipses (CICE). In this Communication, we unveil the intrinsic link between this exotic class of nodal-line semimetals (NLSMs) and a $${{\mathbb{Z}}}_{4}$$ Z 4 = 2 topological crystalline insulator (TCI), by including substantial SOC. We demonstrate that in three space groups (i.e., P b a m (No.55), P 4/ m b m (No.127), and P 4 2 / m b c (No.135)), the TCI supports a fourfold Dirac fermion on the (001) surface protected by two glide symmetries, which originates from the intertwined drumhead surface states of the CICE NLs. The higher order topology is further demonstrated by the emergence of one-dimensional helical hinge states, indicating the discovery of a higher order topological insulator protected by a glide symmetry.
  5. Arabidopsis AINTEGUMENTA (ANT), an AP2 transcription factor, is known to control plant growth and floral organogenesis. In this study, our transcriptome analysis and in situ hybridization assays of maize embryonic leaves suggested that maize ANT1 (ZmANT1) regulates vascular development. To better understand ANT1 functions, we determined the binding motif of ZmANT1 and then showed that ZmANT1 binds the promoters of millet SCR1 , GNC , and AN3 , which are key regulators of Kranz anatomy, chloroplast development, and plant growth, respectively. We generated a mutant with a single-codon deletion and two frameshift mutants of the ANT1 ortholog in the C4 millet Setaria viridis by the CRISPR/Cas9 technique. The two frameshift mutants displayed reduced photosynthesis efficiency and growth rate, smaller leaves, and lower grain yields than wild-type (WT) plants. Moreover, their leaves sporadically exhibited distorted Kranz anatomy and vein spacing. Conducting transcriptomic analysis of developing leaves in the WT and the three mutants we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the two frameshift mutant lines and found many down-regulated DEGs enriched in photosynthesis, heme, tetrapyrrole binding, and antioxidant activity. In addition, we predicted many target genes of ZmANT1 and chose 13 of them to confirm binding of ZmANT1 to their promoters.more »Based on the above observations, we proposed a model for ANT1 regulation of cell proliferation and leaf growth, vascular and vein development, chloroplast development, and photosynthesis through its target genes. Our study revealed biological roles of ANT1 in several developmental processes beyond its known roles in plant growth and floral organogenesis.« less