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  1. 3D instance segmentation for unlabeled imaging modalities is a challenging but essential task as collecting expert annotation can be expensive and time-consuming. Existing works segment a new modality by either deploying pre-trained models optimized on diverse training data or sequentially conducting image translation and segmentation with two relatively independent networks. In this work, we propose a novel Cyclic Segmentation Generative Adversarial Network (CySGAN) that conducts image translation and instance segmentation simultaneously using a unified network with weight sharing. Since the image translation layer can be removed at inference time, our proposed model does not introduce additional computational cost upon a standard segmentation model. For optimizing CySGAN, besides the CycleGAN losses for image translation and supervised losses for the annotated source domain, we also utilize self-supervised and segmentation-based adversarial objectives to enhance the model performance by leveraging unlabeled target domain images. We benchmark our approach on the task of 3D neuronal nuclei segmentation with annotated electron microscopy (EM) images and unlabeled expansion microscopy (ExM) data. The proposed CySGAN outperforms pre-trained generalist models, feature-level domain adaptation models, and the baselines that conduct image translation and segmentation sequentially. Our implementation and the newly collected, densely annotated ExM zebrafish brain nuclei dataset, named NucExM, are publicly available at https://connectomics-bazaar.github.io/proj/CySGAN/index.html. 
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  2. Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of living brain tissue down to an individual synapse level would create opportunities for decoding the dynamics and structure–function relationships of the brain’s complex and dense information processing network; however, this has been hindered by insufficient 3D resolution, inadequate signal-to-noise ratio and prohibitive light burden in optical imaging, whereas electron microscopy is inherently static. Here we solved these challenges by developing an integrated optical/machine-learning technology, LIONESS (live information-optimized nanoscopy enabling saturated segmentation). This leverages optical modifications to stimulated emission depletion microscopy in comprehensively, extracellularly labeled tissue and previous information on sample structure via machine learning to simultaneously achieve isotropic super-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio and compatibility with living tissue. This allows dense deep-learning-based instance segmentation and 3D reconstruction at a synapse level, incorporating molecular, activity and morphodynamic information. LIONESS opens up avenues for studying the dynamic functional (nano-)architecture of living brain tissue. 
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