skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Lindaas, Jakob"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Abstract. Light absorbing organic carbon, or brown carbon (BrC), can be a significantcontributor to the visible light absorption budget. However, the sources ofBrC and the contributions of BrC to light absorption are not wellunderstood. Biomass burning is thought to be a major source of BrC.Therefore, as part of the WE-CAN (Western Wildfire Experiment for CloudChemistry, Aerosol Absorption and Nitrogen) study, BrC absorption data werecollected on board the National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research (NSF/NCAR) C-130 aircraft as it intercepted smoke fromwildfires in the western US in July–August 2018. BrC absorptionmeasurements were obtained in near real-time using two techniques. The firstcoupled a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) with a liquid waveguidecapillary cell and a total organic carbon analyzer for measurements ofwater-soluble BrC absorption and WSOC (water-soluble organic carbon). Thesecond employed a custom-built photoacoustic aerosol absorption spectrometer(PAS) to measure total absorption at 405 and 660 nm. The PAS BrC absorption at 405 nm (PAS total Abs 405 BrC) was calculated by assuming the absorption determined by the PAS at 660 nm was equivalent to the black carbon (BC) absorption and the BC aerosol absorption Ångström exponent was 1. Data from the PILS and PAS were combined to investigate the water-soluble vs. total BrC absorption at 405 nm inmore »the various wildfire plumes sampled during WE-CAN. WSOC, PILS water-soluble Abs 405, and PAS total Abs 405 tracked each other in and out of the smoke plumes. BrC absorption was correlated with WSOC (R2 value for PAS =0.42 and PILS =0.60) and CO (carbon monoxide) (R2 value for PAS =0.76 and PILS =0.55) for all wildfires sampled. The PILS water-soluble Abs 405 was corrected for thenon-water-soluble fraction of the aerosol using the calculated UHSAS(ultra-high-sensitivity aerosol spectrometer) aerosol mass. The correctedPILS water-soluble Abs 405 showed good closure with the PAS total Abs 405BrC with a factor of ∼1.5 to 2 difference. This differencewas explained by particle vs. bulk solution absorption measured by the PASvs. PILS, respectively, and confirmed by Mie theory calculations. DuringWE-CAN, ∼ 45 % (ranging from 31 % to 65 %) of the BrCabsorption was observed to be due to water-soluble species. The ratio of BrC absorption to WSOC or ΔCO showed no clear dependence on firedynamics or the time since emission over 9 h.« less
  2. Abstract. A closed-path quantum-cascade tunable infrared laserdirect absorption spectrometer (QC-TILDAS) was outfitted with an inertialinlet for filter-less separation of particles and several custom-designedcomponents including an aircraft inlet, a vibration isolation mountingplate, and a system for optionally adding active continuous passivation forgas-phase measurements of ammonia (NH3) from a research aircraft. Theinstrument was then deployed on the NSF/NCAR C-130 aircraft during researchflights and test flights associated with the Western wildfire Experiment forCloud chemistry, Aerosol absorption and Nitrogen (WE-CAN) field campaign.The instrument was configured to measure large, rapid gradients in gas-phaseNH3, over a range of altitudes, in smoke (e.g., ash and particles), inthe boundary layer (e.g., during turbulence and turns), in clouds, and in ahot aircraft cabin (e.g., average aircraft cabin temperatures expected toexceed 30 ∘C during summer deployments). Important designgoals were to minimize motion sensitivity, maintain a reasonable detectionlimit, and minimize NH3 “stickiness” on sampling surfaces to maintainfast time response in flight. The observations indicate that adding ahigh-frequency vibration to the laser objective in the QC-TILDAS andmounting the QC-TILDAS on a custom-designed vibration isolation plate weresuccessful in minimizing motion sensitivity of the instrument during flight.Allan variance analyses indicate that the in-flight precision of theinstrument is 60 ppt at 1 Hz corresponding to a 3σ detectionmore »limitof 180 ppt. Zero signals span ±200, or 400 pptv total, withcabin pressure and temperature and altitude in flight. The option for activecontinuous passivation of the sample flow path with1H,1H-perfluorooctylamine, a strong perfluorinated base, preventedadsorption of both water and basic species to instrument sampling surfaces.Characterization of the time response in flight and on the ground showedthat adding passivant to a “clean” instrument system had little impact onthe time response. In contrast, passivant addition greatly improved the timeresponse when sampling surfaces became contaminated prior to a test flight.The observations further show that passivant addition can be used tomaintain a rapid response for in situ NH3 measurements over the duration of anairborne field campaign (e.g., ∼2 months) since passivantaddition also helps to prevent future buildup of water and basic species oninstrument sampling surfaces. Therefore, we recommend the use of activecontinuous passivation with closed-path NH3 instruments when rapid(>1 Hz) collection of NH3 is important for the scientificobjective of a field campaign (e.g., sampling from aircraft or anothermobile research platform). Passivant addition can be useful for maintainingoptimum operation and data collection in NH3-rich and humid environments orwhen contamination of sampling surfaces is likely, yet frequent cleaning isnot possible. Passivant addition may not be necessary for fast operation,even in polluted environments, if sampling surfaces can be cleaned when thetime response has degraded.« less
  3. Abstract

    Wildfires are a major source of gas‐phase ammonia (NH3) to the atmosphere. Quantifying the evolution and fate of this NH3is important to understanding the formation of secondary aerosol in smoke and its accompanying effects on radiative balance and nitrogen deposition. Here, we use data from the Western Wildfire Experiment for Cloud Chemistry, Aerosol Absorption, and Nitrogen (WE‐CAN) to add new empirical constraints on the e‐folding loss timescale of NH3and its relationship with particulate ammonium (pNH4) within wildfire smoke plumes in the western U.S. during summer 2018. We show that the e‐folding loss timescale of NH3with respect to particle‐phase partitioning ranges from ∼24 to ∼4000 min (median of 55 min). Within these same plumes, oxidation of nitrogen oxides is observed concurrent with increases in the fraction ofpNH4in each plume sampled, suggesting that formation of ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) is likely. We find wide variability in how close ourin situmeasurements of NH4NO3are to those expected in a dry thermodynamic equilibrium, and find that NH4NO3is most likely to form in fresh, dense smoke plumes injected at higher altitudes and colder temperatures. In chemically older smoke we observe correlations between both the fraction ofpNH4and the fraction of particulate nitrate (pNO3) in the aerosol with temperature, providingmore »additional evidence of the presence of NH4NO3and the influence of injection height on gas‐particle partitioning of NH3.

    « less
  4. Abstract

    Reactive nitrogen (Nr) within smoke plumes plays important roles in the production of ozone, the formation of secondary aerosols, and deposition of fixed N to ecosystems. The Western Wildfire Experiment for Cloud Chemistry, Aerosol Absorption, and Nitrogen (WE‐CAN) field campaign sampled smoke from 23 wildfires throughout the western U.S. during summer 2018 using the NSF/NCAR C‐130 research aircraft. We empirically estimateNrnormalized excess mixing ratios and emission factors from fires sampled within 80 min of estimated emission and explore variability in the dominant forms ofNrbetween these fires. We find that reduced N compounds comprise a majority (39%–80%; median = 66%) of total measured reactive nitrogen (ΣNr) emissions. The smoke plumes sampled during WE‐CAN feature rapid chemical transformations after emission. As a result, within minutes after emission total measured oxidized nitrogen (ΣNOy) and measured totalΣNHx(NH3 + pNH4) are more robustly correlated with modified combustion efficiency (MCE) than NOxand NH3by themselves. The ratio of ΣNHx/ΣNOydisplays a negative relationship with MCE, consistent with previous studies. A positive relationship with total measuredΣNrsuggests that both burn conditions and fuel N content/volatilization differences contribute to the observed variability in the distribution of reduced and oxidizedNr. Additionally, we compare our in situ field estimates ofNrEFs to previous lab and field studies. Formore »similar fuel types, we findΣNHxEFs are of the same magnitude or larger than lab‐based NH3EF estimates, andΣNOyEFs are smaller than lab NOxEFs.

    « less
  5. Abstract

    The Western Wildfire Experiment for Cloud Chemistry, Aerosol Absorption, and Nitrogen (WE‐CAN) deployed the NSF/NCAR C‐130 aircraft in summer 2018 across the western U.S. to sample wildfire smoke during its first days of atmospheric evolution. We present a summary of a subset of reactive oxidized nitrogen species (NOy) in plumes sampled in a pseudo‐Lagrangian fashion. Emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) and nitrous acid (HONO) are rapidly converted to more oxidized forms. Within 4 h, ∼86% of the ΣNOyis in the form of peroxy acyl nitrates (PANs) (∼37%), particulate nitrate (pNO3) (∼27%), and gas‐phase organic nitrates (Org N(g)) (∼23%). The averagee‐folding time and distance for NOxare ∼90 min and ∼40 km, respectively. Nearly no enhancements in nitric acid (HNO3) were observed in plumes sampled in a pseudo‐Lagrangian fashion, implying HNO3‐limited ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3) formation, with one notable exception that we highlight as a case study. We also summarize the observed partitioning of NOyin all the smoke samples intercepted during WE‐CAN. In smoke samples intercepted above 3 km above sea level (ASL), the contributions of PANs andpNO3to ΣNOyincrease with altitude. WE‐CAN also sampled smoke from multiple fires mixed with anthropogenic emissions over the California Central Valley. We distinguish samples where anthropogenic NOxemissions appear to leadmore »to an increase in NOxabundances by a factor of four and contribute to additional PAN formation.

    « less