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  1. Grain boundaries (GBs) in perovskite solar cells and optoelectronic devices are widely regarded as detrimental defects that accelerate charge and energy losses through nonradiative carrier trapping and recombination, but the mechanism is still under debate owing to the diversity of GB configurations and behaviors. We combine ab initio electronic structure and machine learning force field to investigate evolution of the geometric and electronic structure of a CsPbBr 3 GB on a nanosecond timescale, which is comparable with the carrier recombination time. We demonstrate that the GB slides spontaneously within a few picoseconds increasing the band gap. Subsequent structural oscillations dynamically produce midgap trap states through Pb–Pb interactions across the GB. After several hundred picoseconds, structural distortions start to occur, increasing the occurrence of deep midgap states. We identify a distinct correlation of the average Pb–Pb distance and fluctuations in the ion coordination numbers with the appearance of the midgap states. Suppressing GB distortions through annealing and breaking up Pb–Pb dimers by passivation can efficiently alleviate the detrimental effects of GBs in perovskites. The study provides new insights into passivation of the detrimental GB defects, and demonstrates that structural and charge carrier dynamics in perovskites are intimately coupled. 
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  2. We present a novel method, to our knowledge, to synthesize non-trivial speckle patterns that can enable sub-Rayleigh second-order correlation imaging. The speckle patterns acquire a unique anti-correlation in the spatial intensity fluctuation by introducing the blue noise distribution on spatial Fourier power spectrum to the input light fields through amplitude modulation. Illuminating objects with the blue noise speckle patterns can lead to a sub-diffraction limit imaging system with a resolution more than three times higher than first-order imaging, which is comparable to the resolving power of ninth order correlation imaging with thermal light. Our method opens a new route towards non-trivial speckle pattern generation by tailoring amplitudes in spatial Fourier power spectrum of the input light fields and provides a versatile scheme for constructing sub-Rayleigh imaging and microscopy systems without invoking complicated higher-order correlations.

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