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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
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  4. An assertion is a predicate that should be evaluated true during program execution. In this paper, we present the development of quantum assertion schemes and show how they are used for hardware error mitigation and software debugging. Compared to assertions in classical programs, quantum assertions are challenging due to the no-cloning theorem and potentially destructive measurement. We discuss how these challenges can be circumvented such that certain properties of quantum states can be verified non-destructively during program execution. Furthermore, we show that besides detecting program bugs, dynamic assertion circuits can mitigate noise effects via post-selection of the assertion results. Our case studies demonstrate the use of quantum assertions in various quantum algorithms. 
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