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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 6, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 6, 2023
  3. Ionic liquid mixed with poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted nanoparticle aggregates at low particle concentrations was shown to exhibit different dynamics and ionic conductivity than that of pure ionic liquid in our previous studies. In this work, we report on the quasi-elastic neutron scattering results on ionic liquid containing polymer-grafted nanoparticles at the higher particle concentration. The diffusivity of imidazolium (HMIM + ) cations of 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HMIM-TFSI) in the presence of poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted iron oxide nanoparticles and the ionic conductivity of solutions were discussed through the confinement. Analysis of the elastic incoherent structure factor suggested the confinement radius decreased with the addition of grafted particles in HMIM-TFSI/solvent mixture, indicating the confinement that is induced by the high concentration of grafted particles, shrinks the HMIM-TFSI restricted volume. We further conjecture that this enhanced diffusivity occurs as a result of the local ordering of cations within aggregates of poly(methyl methacrylate)-grafted particles.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 8, 2023
  4. We incorporated polymer-grafted nanoparticles into ionic and zwitterionic liquids to explore the solvation and confinement effects on their heterogeneous dynamics using quasi-elastic neutron scattering (QENS). 1-Hexyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (HMIM-TFSI) mixed with deuterated poly(methyl methacrylate) (d-PMMA)-grafted nanoparticles is studied to unravel how dynamic coupling between PMMA and HMIM-TFSI influence the fast and slow diffusion characteristics of the HMIM + cations. The zwitterionic liquid, 1-butyl-3-methyl imidazole-2-ylidene borane (BMIM-BH 3 ) is critically selected and mixed with PMMA-grafted nanoparticles for comparison in this work as its ions do not self-dissociate and it does not couple with PMMA through ion-dipole interactions as HMIM-TFSI does. We find that long-range unrestricted diffusion of HMIM + cations is higher in well-dispersed particles than in aggregated particle systems, whereas the localized diffusion of HMIM + is measured to be higher in close-packed particles. Translational diffusion dynamics of BMIM-BH 3 is not influenced by any particle structures suggesting that zwitterions do not interact with PMMA. This difference between two ionic liquid types enables us to decouple polymer effects from the diffusion of ionic liquids, which is integral to understand the ionic transport mechanism in ionic liquids confined in polymer-grafted nanoparticle electrolytes.
  5. Schmidt, Dirk ; Schreiber, Laura ; Vernet, Elise (Ed.)
    We are upgrading and refurbishing the first-generation adaptive-secondary mirror (ASM)-based AO system on the 6.5-m MMT in Arizona, in an NSF MSIP-funded program that will create a unique facility specialized for exoplanet characterization. This update includes a third-generation ASM with embedded electronics for low power consumption, two pyramid wavefront sensors (optical and near-IR), and an upgraded ARIES science camera for high-resolution spectroscopy (HRS) from 1-5 μm and MMT-POL science camera for sensitive polarization mapping. Digital electronics have been incorporated into each of the 336 actuators, simplifying hub-level electronics and reducing the total power to 300 W, down from 1800 W in the legacy system — reducing cooling requirements from active coolant to passive ambient cooling. An improved internal control law allows for electronic damping and a faster response. The dual pyramid wavefront sensors allow for a choice between optical or IR wavefront sensing depending on guide star magnitude, color, and extinction. The HRS upgrade to ARIES enables crosscorrelation of molecular templates to extract atmospheric parameters of exoplanets. The combination of these upgrades creates a workhorse instrument for exoplanet characterization via AO and HRS to separate planets from their host stars, with broad wavelength coverage and polarization to probe a rangemore »of molecular species in exoplanet atmospheres.« less