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  1. We propose a new learning framework that captures the tiered structure of many real-world user-interaction applications, where the users can be divided into two groups based on their different tolerance on exploration risks and should be treated separately. In this setting, we simultaneously maintain two policies π^O and πE: π^O ("O" for "online") interacts with more risk-tolerant users from the first tier and minimizes regret by balancing exploration and exploitation as usual, while π^E ("E" for "exploit") exclusively focuses on exploitation for risk-averse users from the second tier utilizing the data collected so far. An important question is whether such a separation yields advantages over the standard online setting (i.e., π^E=π^O) for the risk-averse users. We individually consider the gap-independent vs. gap-dependent settings. For the former, we prove that the separation is indeed not beneficial from a minimax perspective. For the latter, we show that if choosing Pessimistic Value Iteration as the exploitation algorithm to produce π^E, we can achieve a constant regret for risk-averse users independent of the number of episodes K, which is in sharp contrast to the Ω(logK) regret for any online RL algorithms in the same setting, while the regret of π^O (almost) maintains its online regret optimality and does not need to compromise for the success of π^E. 
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  2. Abstract One of the most poorly understood aspects of low-mass star formation is how multiple-star systems are formed. Here we present the results of Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Band 6 observations toward a forming quadruple protostellar system, G206.93-16.61E2, in the Orion B molecular cloud. ALMA 1.3 mm continuum emission reveals four compact objects, of which two are Class I young stellar objects and the other two are likely in prestellar phase. The 1.3 mm continuum emission also shows three asymmetric ribbon-like structures that are connected to the four objects, with lengths ranging from ∼500 to ∼2200 au. By comparing our data with magnetohydrodynamic simulations, we suggest that these ribbons trace accretion flows and also function as gas bridges connecting the member protostars. Additionally, ALMA CO J = 2−1 line emission reveals a complicated molecular outflow associated with G206.93-16.61E2, with arc-like structures suggestive of an outflow cavity viewed pole-on. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2024
  3. Abstract

    Leaf laminar growth and adaxial–abaxial boundary formation are fundamental outcomes of plant development. Boundary and laminar growth coordinate the further patterning and growth of the leaf, directing the differentiation of cell types within the top and bottom domains and promoting initiation of lateral organs along their adaxial or abaxial axis. Leaf adaxial–abaxial polarity specification and laminar outgrowth are regulated by two transcription factors, REVOLUTA (REV) and KANADI (KAN). ABA INSENSITIVE TO GROWTH 1 (ABIG1) encodes a HOMEODOMAIN-LEUCINE ZIPPER (HD-ZIP) class II transcription factor and is a direct target of the adaxial–abaxial regulators REV and KAN. To investigate the role of ABIG1 in leaf development and in the establishment of polarity, we examined the phenotypes of both gain-of-function and loss-of-function mutants. Through genetic interaction analysis with REV and KAN mutants, we determined that ABIG1 plays a role in leaf laminar growth as well as in adaxial–abaxial polarity establishment. Genetic and physical interaction assays showed that ABIG1 interacts with the transcriptional TOPLESS corepressor. This study provides new evidence that ABIG1, another HD-ZIP II, facilitates growth through the corepressor TOPLESS.

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  4. null (Ed.)

    Investigating the physical and chemical structure of massive star-forming regions is critical for understanding the formation and early evolution of massive stars. We performed a detailed line survey toward six dense cores, named MM1, MM4, MM6, MM7, MM8, and MM11, in the G9.62+0.19 star-forming region resolved in Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) band 3 observations. Toward these cores, about 172 transitions have been identified and attributed to 16 species, including organic oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulphur-bearing molecules and their isotopologues. Four dense cores, MM7, MM8, MM4, and MM11, are line-rich sources. Modelling of these spectral lines reveals that the rotational temperature lies in the range 72–115, 100–163, 102–204, and 84–123 K for MM7, MM8, MM4, and MM11, respectively. The molecular column densities are 1.6 × 1015–9.2 × 1017 cm−2 toward the four cores. The cores MM8 and MM4 show a chemical difference between oxygen- and nitrogen-bearing species, i.e. MM4 is rich in oxygen-bearing molecules, while nitrogen-bearing molecules, especially vibrationally excited HC3N lines, are mainly observed in MM8. The distinct initial temperatures at the accretion phase may lead to this N/O differentiation. Through analysing column densities and spatial distributions of O-bearing complex organic molecules (COMs), we found that C2H5OH and CH3OCH3 might have a common precursor, CH3OH. CH3OCHO and CH3OCH3 are likely chemically linked. In addition, the observed variation in HC3N and HC5N emission may indicate their different formation mechanisms in hot and cold regions.

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    We investigate the presence of hub-filament systems in a large sample of 146 active proto-clusters, using H13CO+ J = 1-0 molecular line data obtained from the ATOMS survey. We find that filaments are ubiquitous in proto-clusters, and hub-filament systems are very common from dense core scales (∼0.1 pc) to clump/cloud scales (∼1–10 pc). The proportion of proto-clusters containing hub-filament systems decreases with increasing dust temperature (Td) and luminosity-to-mass ratios (L/M) of clumps, indicating that stellar feedback from H ii regions gradually destroys the hub-filament systems as proto-clusters evolve. Clear velocity gradients are seen along the longest filaments with a mean velocity gradient of 8.71 km s−1 pc−1 and a median velocity gradient of 5.54 km s−1 pc−1. We find that velocity gradients are small for filament lengths larger than ∼1 pc, probably hinting at the existence of inertial inflows, although we cannot determine whether the latter are driven by large-scale turbulence or large-scale gravitational contraction. In contrast, velocity gradients below ∼1 pc dramatically increase as filament lengths decrease, indicating that the gravity of the hubs or cores starts to dominate gas infall at small scales. We suggest that self-similar hub-filament systems and filamentary accretion at all scales may play a key role in high-mass star formation.

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