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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 31, 2024
  2. The Ediacaran Period marks a pivotal time in geodynamo evolution when the geomagnetic field is thought to approach the weak state where kinetic energy exceeds magnetic energy, as manifested by an extremely high frequency of polarity reversals, high secular variation, and an ultralow dipole field strength. However, how the geodynamo transitioned from this state into one with more stable field behavior is unknown. Here, we address this issue through a high-resolution magnetostratigraphic investigation of the ~494.5 million-year-old Jiangshanian Global Standard Stratotype and Point (GSSP) section in South China. Our paleomagnetic results document zones with rapid reversals, stable polarity and a ~80 thousand-year-long interval without a geocentric axial dipole field. From these changes, we suggest that for most of the Cambrian, the solid inner core had not yet grown to a size sufficiently large to stabilize the geodynamo. This unusual field behavior can explain paleomagnetic data used to define paradoxical true polar wander, supporting instead the rotational stability of the solid Earth during the great radiation of life in the Cambrian. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Spatial confinement of electronic topological surface states (TSSs) in topological insulators poses a formidable challenge because TSSs are protected by time-reversal symmetry. In previous works formation of a gap in the electronic spectrum of TSSs has been successfully demonstrated in topological insulator/magnetic material heterostructures, where ferromagnetic exchange interactions locally lift the time-reversal symmetry. Here we report experimental evidence of exchange interaction between a topological insulator Bi2Se3 and a magnetic insulator EuSe. Spin-polarized neutron reflectometry reveals a reduction of the in-plane magnetic susceptibility within a 2 nm interfacial layer of EuSe, and the combination of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry and Hall measurements points to the formation of an interfacial layer with a suppressed net magnetic moment. This suppressed magnetization survives up to temperatures five times higher than the Néel temperature of EuSe. Its origin is attributed to the formation of an interfacial antiferromagnetic state. Abrupt resistance changes observed in high magnetic fields are consistent with antiferromagnetic domain reconstruction affecting transport in a TSS via exchange coupling. The high-temperature local control of TSSs with zero net magnetization unlocks new opportunities for the design of electronic, spintronic, and quantum computation devices, ranging from quantization of Hall conductance in zero fields to spatial localization of non-Abelian excitations in superconducting topological qubits. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 1, 2024
  4. Abstract

    Topological surface-states can acquire an energy gap when time-reversal symmetry is broken by interfacing with a magnetic insulator. This gap has yet to be measured. Such topological-magnetic insulator heterostructures can host a quantized anomalous Hall effect and can allow the control of the magnetic state of the insulator in a spintronic device. In this work, we observe the energy gap of topological surface-states in proximity to a magnetic insulator using magnetooptical Landau level spectroscopy. We measure Pb1-xSnxSe–EuSe heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy exhibiting a record mobility and low Fermi energy. Through temperature dependent measurements and theoretical calculations, we show this gap is likely due to quantum confinement and conclude that the magnetic proximity effect is weak in this system. This weakness is disadvantageous for the realization of the quantum anomalous Hall effect, but favorable for spintronic devices which require the preservation of spin-momentum locking at the Fermi level.

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  5. Abstract Ferromagnetic semiconductor Ga 1– x Mn x As 1– y P y thin films go through a metal–insulator transition at low temperature where electrical conduction becomes driven by hopping of charge carriers. In this regime, we report a colossal negative magnetoresistance (CNMR) coexisting with a saturated magnetic moment, unlike in the traditional magnetic semiconductor Ga 1– x Mn x As. By analyzing the temperature dependence of the resistivity at fixed magnetic field, we demonstrate that the CNMR can be consistently described by the field dependence of the localization length, which relates to a field dependent mobility edge. This dependence is likely due to the random environment of Mn atoms in Ga 1– x Mn x As 1– y P y which causes a random spatial distribution of the mobility that is suppressed by an increasing magnetic field. 
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  6. Switching of magnetization by spin–orbit torque in the (Ga,Mn)(As,P) film was studied with currents along ⟨100⟩ crystal directions and an in-plane magnetic field bias. This geometry allowed us to identify the presence of two independent spin–orbit-induced magnetic fields: the Rashba field and the Dresselhaus field. Specifically, we observe that when the in-plane bias field is along the current (I[Formula: see text]H bias ), switching is dominated by the Rashba field, while the Dresselhaus field dominates magnetization reversal when the bias field is perpendicular to the current (I ⊥ H bias ). In our experiments, the magnitudes of the Rashba and Dresselhaus fields were determined to be 2.0 and 7.5 Oe, respectively, at a current density of 8.0 × 10 5 A/cm 2 . 
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