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  1. Abstract Driven by the big data science, material informatics has attracted enormous research interests recently along with many recognized achievements. To acquire knowledge of materials by previous experience, both feature descriptors and databases are essential for training machine learning (ML) models with high accuracy. In this regard, the electronic charge density ρ ( r ), which in principle determines the properties of materials at their ground state, can be considered as one of the most appropriate descriptors. However, the systematic electronic charge density ρ ( r ) database of inorganic materials is still in its infancy due to the difficultiesmore »in collecting raw data in experiment and the expensive first-principles based computational cost in theory. Herein, a real space electronic charge density ρ ( r ) database of 17,418 cubic inorganic materials is constructed by performing high-throughput density functional theory calculations. The displayed ρ ( r ) patterns show good agreements with those reported in previous studies, which validates our computations. Further statistical analysis reveals that it possesses abundant and diverse data, which could accelerate ρ ( r ) related machine learning studies. Moreover, the electronic charge density database will also assists chemical bonding identifications and promotes new crystal discovery in experiments.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  2. The emerging volumetric videos offer a fully immersive, six degrees of freedom (6DoF) viewing experience, at the cost of extremely high bandwidth demand. In this paper, we design, implement, and evaluate Vues, an edge-assisted transcoding system that delivers high-quality volumetric videos with low bandwidth requirement, low decoding overhead, and high quality of experience (QoE) on mobile devices. Through an IRB-approved user study, we build a f irst-of-its-kind QoE model to quantify the impact of various factors introduced by transcoding volumetric content into 2D videos. Motivated by the key observations from this user study, Vues employs a novel multiview approach withmore »the overarching goal of boosting QoE. The Vues edge server adaptively transcodes a volumetric video frame into multiple 2D views with the help of a few lightweight machine learning models and strategically balances the extra bandwidth consumption of additional views and the improved QoE, indicated by our QoE model. The client selects the view that optimizes the QoE among the delivered candidates for display. Comprehensive evaluations using a prototype implementation indicate that Vues dramatically outperforms existing approaches. On average, it improves the QoE by 35% (up to 85%), compared to single-view transcoding schemes, and reduces the bandwidth consumption by 95%, compared to the state-of-the-art that directly streams volumetric videos.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  3. Abstract Compelling evidence suggests distinct correlated electron behavior may exist only in clean 2D materials such as 1T-TaS 2 . Unfortunately, experiment and theory suggest that extrinsic disorder in free standing 2D layers disrupts correlation-driven quantum behavior. Here we demonstrate a route to realizing fragile 2D quantum states through endotaxial polytype engineering of van der Waals materials. The true isolation of 2D charge density waves (CDWs) between metallic layers stabilizes commensurate long-range order and lifts the coupling between neighboring CDW layers to restore mirror symmetries via interlayer CDW twinning. The twinned-commensurate charge density wave (tC-CDW) reported herein has a singlemore »metal–insulator phase transition at ~350 K as measured structurally and electronically. Fast in-situ transmission electron microscopy and scanned nanobeam diffraction map the formation of tC-CDWs. This work introduces endotaxial polytype engineering of van der Waals materials to access latent 2D ground states distinct from conventional 2D fabrication.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
  4. The security of isolated execution architectures such as Intel SGX has been significantly threatened by the recent emer- gence of side-channel attacks. Cache side-channel attacks allow adversaries to leak secrets stored inside isolated en- claves without having direct access to the enclave memory. In some cases, secrets can be leaked even without having the knowledge of the victim application code or having OS-level privileges. We propose the concept of Composable Cachelets (CC), a new scalable strategy to dynamically partition the last-level cache (LLC) for completely isolating enclaves from other applications and from each other. CC supports enclave isolation in cachesmore »with the capability to dynamically readjust the cache capacity as enclaves are created and destroyed. We present a cache-aware and enclave-aware operational seman- tics to help rigorously establish security properties of CC, and we experimentally demonstrate that CC thwarts side-channel attacks on caches with modest performance and complexity impact.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
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  8. Visual SLAM systems are concurrent, performance-critical systems that respond to real-time environmental conditions and are frequently deployed on resource-constrained hardware. Previous SLAM frameworks have primarily focused on algorithmic advances and their systems core has largely remained unchanged. In turn, SLAM systems suffer from performance problems that could be alleviated with improved systems design. In this paper, we present a quantitative analysis of the systems challenges to building consistent, accurate, and robust SLAM systems in the face of concurrency, variable environmental conditions, and resource-constrained hardware. We identify three interconnected challenges on systems design --- timeliness, concurrency, and context awareness --- andmore »clarify their effects on performance.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 9, 2023
  9. Virtual private networks (VPNs) allow organizations to support their remote employees by creating tunnels that ensure confidentiality, integrity and authenticity of communicated packets. However, these same services are often provided by the application, in protocols such as TLS. As a result, the historical driving force for VPNs may be in decline. Instead, VPNs are often used to determine whether a communicating host is a legitimate member of the network to simplify filtering and access control. However, this comes with a cost: VPN implementations often introduce performance bottlenecks that affect the user experience. To preserve straightforward filtering without the limitations ofmore »VPN deployments, we explore a simple network-level identifier that allows remote users to provide evidence that they have previously been vetted. This approach uniquely identifies each user, even if they are behind Carrier-Grade Network Address Translation, which causes widespread IP address sharing. Such identifiers remove the redundant cryptography, packet header overheads, and need for dedicated servers to implement VPNs. This lightweight approach can achieve access control goals with minimal performance overheads.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 29, 2022
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023