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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 8, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 14, 2024

    The interacting dark energy (IDE) model, which considers the interaction between dark energy and dark matter, provides a natural mechanism to alleviate the coincidence problem and can also relieve the observational tensions under the ΛCDM model. Previous studies have put constraints on IDE models by observations of cosmic expansion history, cosmic microwave background, and large-scale structures. However, these data are not yet enough to distinguish IDE models from ΛCDM effectively. Because the non-linear structure formation contains rich cosmological information, it can provide additional means to differentiate alternative models. In this paper, based on a set of N-body simulations for IDE models, we investigate the formation histories and properties of dark matter haloes and compare with their ΛCDM counterparts. For the model with dark matter decaying into dark energy and the parameters being the best-fitting values from previous constraints, the structure formation is markedly slowed down, and the haloes have systematically lower mass, looser internal structure, higher spin, and anisotropy. This is inconsistent with the observed structure formation, and thus this model can be safely ruled out from the perspective of non-linear structure formation. Moreover, we find that the ratio of halo concentrations between IDE and ΛCDM counterparts depends sensitively on the interaction parameter and is independent of halo mass. This can act as a powerful probe to constrain IDE models. Our results concretely demonstrate that the interaction of the two dark components can affect the halo formation considerably, and therefore the constraints from non-linear structures are indispensable.

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    Antimicrobial pentatopic 2,2′:6′,2′′-terpyridines that form 3-D supramolecular hexagonal prisms with Cd 2+ through coordination driven self-assembly can be entrapped by lipid discoidal bicelles, composed of 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero -3-phosphocholine, 1,2-dihexanoyl- sn-glycero -3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl- sn-glycero -3-phospho-(1′-rac-glycerol) lipid, forming a well-defined nanocomplex. Structural characterization performed by very small angle neutron scattering, small angle X-ray scattering and transmission electron microscopy suggests that the hexagonal prisms are preferably located at the rim of bicellar discs with the hexagonal face in parallel with the bilayers, instead of face-to-face stacking. Such a configuration reduces the π−π interaction and consequently enhances the fluorescence emission. Since novel supramolecules were reported to have antibiotic functions, this study provides insight into the interactions of antimicrobial supermolecules with lipid membranes, leading to potential theranostic applications. 
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  5. Abstract

    The striking resemblance of high multiplicity proton-proton (pp) collisions at the LHC to heavy ion collisions challenges our conventional wisdom on the formation of the quark-gluon plasma (QGP). A consistent explanation of the collectivity phenomena in pp will help us to understand the mechanism that leads to the QGP-like signals in small systems. In this study, we introduce a transport model approach connecting the initial conditions provided by PYTHIA8 with subsequent AMPT rescatterings to study the collective behavior in high energy pp collisions. The multiplicity dependence of light hadron productions from this model is in reasonable agreement with the pp$$\sqrt{s}=13$$s=13TeV experimental data. It is found in the comparisons that both the partonic and hadronic final state interactions are important for the generation of the radial flow feature of the pp transverse momentum spectra. The study also shows that the long range two particle azimuthal correlation in high multiplicity pp events is sensitive to the proton sub-nucleon spatial fluctuations.

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    Responsive chromic materials are highly desirable in the fields of displays, anti-counterfeiting, and camouflage, but their advanced applications are usually limited by the unrealized delicate and independent tunability of their three intrinsic attributes of color. This work achieves the separate, continuous, and reversible modulation of structural color brightness and hue with an aqueous suspension of dual-responsive Fe 3 O 4 @polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)@poly( N -isopropyl acrylamide) (PNIPAM) flexible photonic nanochains. The underlying modulation mechanism of color brightness was experimentally and numerically deciphered by analyzing the morphological responses to stimuli. When an increasing magnetic field was applied, the random worm-like flexible photonic nanochains gradually orientated along the field direction, due to the dominant magnetic dipole interaction over the thermal motion, lengthening the orientation segment length up to the whole of the nanochains. Consequently, the suspension displays increased color brightness (characterized by diffraction intensity). Meanwhile, the color hue (characterized by diffraction frequency) could be controlled by temperature, due to the volume changes of the interparticle PNIPAM. The achieved diverse color modulation advances the next-generation responsive chromic materials and enriches the basic understanding of the color tuning mechanisms. With versatile and facile color tunability and shape patterning, the developed responsive chromic liquid promises to have attractive potential in full-color displays and in adaptive camouflages. 
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