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  1. Abstract

    We report on the discovery of a new supergiant fast X-ray transient (SFXT), MAXI J0709−159, and its identification with LY CMa (also known as HD 54786). On 2022 January 25, a new flaring X-ray object, named MAXI J0709−159, was detected by the Monitor of All-sky X-ray Image (MAXI). Two flaring activities were observed in two scans ∼3 hr apart, where the 2–10 keV flux reached 5 × 10−9 erg cm−2 s−1. During the period, the source exhibited a large spectral change, suggesting that the absorption column density NH increased from 1022 to 1023 cm−2. A NuSTAR follow-up observation on January 29 identified a new X-ray source with a flux of 6 × 10−13 erg cm−2 s−1 at a position consistent with LY CMa, which has been identified as a B supergiant as well as a Be star, located at a 3 kpc distance. The observed X-ray activity, characterized by short (≲several hours) duration, rapid (≲ a few seconds) variabilities accompanied by spectral changes, and a large luminosity swing (1032–1037 erg s−1), agree with those of SFXTs. On the other hand, optical spectroscopic observations of LY CMa reveal a broad Hα emission line, which may indicate the existence of a Be circumstellar disk. These results suggest that the optical companion, LY CMa, certainly has a complex circumstellar medium including dense clumps.

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    Precipitation occurs in two basic forms defined as liquid state and solid state. Different from rain-fed watershed, modeling snow processes is of vital importance in snow-dominated watersheds. The seasonal snowpack is a natural water reservoir, which stores snow water in winter and releases it in spring and summer. The warmer climate in recent decades has led to earlier snowmelt, a decline in snowpack, and change in the seasonality of river flows. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) could be applied in the snow-influenced watershed because of its ability to simultaneously predict the streamflow generated from rainfall and from the melting of snow. The choice of parameters, reference data, and calibration strategy could significantly affect the SWAT model calibration outcome and further affect the prediction accuracy. In this study, SWAT models are implemented in four upland watersheds in the Tulare Lake Basin (TLB) located across the Southern Sierra Nevada Mountains. Three calibration scenarios considering different calibration parameters and reference datasets are applied to investigate the impact of the Parallel Energy Balance Model (ParBal) snow reconstruction data and snow parameters on the streamflow and snow water-equivalent (SWE) prediction accuracy. In addition, the watershed parameters and lapse rate parameters-led equifinality is also evaluated. The results indicate that calibration of the SWAT model with respect to both streamflow and SWE reference data could improve the model SWE prediction reliability in general. Comparatively, the streamflow predictions are not significantly affected by differently lumped calibration schemes. The default snow parameter values capture the extreme high flows better than the other two calibration scenarios, whereas there is no remarkable difference among the three calibration schemes for capturing the extreme low flows. The watershed and lapse rate parameters-induced equifinality affects the flow prediction more (Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) varies between 0.2–0.3) than the SWE prediction (NSE varies less than 0.1). This study points out the remote-sensing-based SWE reconstruction product as a promising alternative choice for model calibration in ungauged snow-influenced watersheds. The streamflow-reconstructed SWE bi-objective calibrated model could improve the prediction reliability of surface water supply change for the downstream agricultural region under the changing climate. 
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  4. In recent years, air pollution has caused more than 1 million deaths per year in China, making it a major focus of public health efforts. However, future climate change may exacerbate such human health impacts by increasing the frequency and duration of weather conditions that enhance air pollution exposure. Here, we use a combination of climate, air quality, and epidemiological models to assess future air pollution deaths in a changing climate under Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5). We find that, assuming pollution emissions and population are held constant at current levels, climate change would adversely affect future air quality for >85% of China’s population (∼55% of land area) by the middle of the century, and would increase by 3% and 4% the population-weighted average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and ozone, respectively. As a result, we estimate an additional 12,100 and 8,900 Chinese (95% confidence interval: 10,300 to 13,800 and 2,300 to 14,700, respectively) will die per year from PM2.5 and ozone exposure, respectively. The important underlying climate mechanisms are changes in extreme conditions such as atmospheric stagnation and heat waves (contributing 39% and 6%, respectively, to the increase in mortality). Additionally, greater vulnerability of China’s aging population will further increase the estimated deaths from PM2.5 and ozone in 2050 by factors of 1 and 3, respectively. Our results indicate that climate change and more intense extremes are likely to increase the risk of severe pollution events in China. Managing air quality in China in a changing climate will thus become more challenging. 
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  5. Abstract. Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions andtheir redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biospherein a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carboncycle, support the development of climate policies, and project futureclimate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets and methodologies toquantify the five major components of the global carbon budget and theiruncertainties. Fossil CO2 emissions (EFOS) are based on energystatistics and cement production data, while emissions from land-use change(ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on land use and land-use changedata and bookkeeping models. Atmospheric CO2 concentration is measureddirectly, and its growth rate (GATM) is computed from the annualchanges in concentration. The ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is estimatedwith global ocean biogeochemistry models and observation-baseddata products. The terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated withdynamic global vegetation models. The resulting carbon budget imbalance(BIM), the difference between the estimated total emissions and theestimated changes in the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere, is ameasure of imperfect data and understanding of the contemporary carboncycle. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ. For the year 2021, EFOS increased by 5.1 % relative to 2020, withfossil emissions at 10.1 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 (9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1 when the cement carbonation sink is included), and ELUC was 1.1 ± 0.7 GtC yr−1, for a total anthropogenic CO2 emission(including the cement carbonation sink) of 10.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1(40.0 ± 2.9 GtCO2). Also, for 2021, GATM was 5.2 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1 (2.5 ± 0.1 ppm yr−1), SOCEAN was 2.9  ± 0.4 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 3.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1, with aBIM of −0.6 GtC yr−1 (i.e. the total estimated sources were too low orsinks were too high). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration averaged over2021 reached 414.71 ± 0.1 ppm. Preliminary data for 2022 suggest anincrease in EFOS relative to 2021 of +1.0 % (0.1 % to 1.9 %)globally and atmospheric CO2 concentration reaching 417.2 ppm, morethan 50 % above pre-industrial levels (around 278 ppm). Overall, the meanand trend in the components of the global carbon budget are consistentlyestimated over the period 1959–2021, but discrepancies of up to 1 GtC yr−1 persist for the representation of annual to semi-decadalvariability in CO2 fluxes. Comparison of estimates from multipleapproaches and observations shows (1) a persistent large uncertainty in theestimate of land-use change emissions, (2) a low agreement between thedifferent methods on the magnitude of the land CO2 flux in the northernextratropics, and (3) a discrepancy between the different methods on thestrength of the ocean sink over the last decade. This living data updatedocuments changes in the methods and data sets used in this new globalcarbon budget and the progress in understanding of the global carbon cyclecompared with previous publications of this data set. The data presented inthis work are available at (Friedlingstein et al., 2022b). 
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