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  1. Abstract

    We used the Immersion GRating Infrared Spectrometer (IGRINS) to determine fundamental parameters for 61 K- and M-type young stellar objects (YSOs) located in the Ophiuchus and Upper Scorpius star-forming regions. We employed synthetic spectra and a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to fit specificK-band spectral regions and determine the photospheric temperature (T), surface gravity (logg), magnetic field strength (B), projected rotational velocity (vsini), andK-band veiling (rK). We determinedBfor ∼46% of our sample. Stellar parameters were compared to the results from Taurus-Auriga and the TW Hydrae association presented in Paper I of this series. We classified all the YSOs in the IGRINS survey with infrared spectral indices from Two Micron All Sky Survey and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer photometry between 2 and 24μm. We found that Class II YSOs typically have lowerloggandvsini, similarB, and higherK-band veiling than their Class III counterparts. Additionally, we determined the stellar parameters for a sample of K and M field stars also observed with IGRINS. We have identified intrinsic similarities and differences at different evolutionary stages with our homogeneous determination of stellar parameters in the IGRINS YSO survey. Consideringloggas amore »proxy for age, we found that the Ophiuchus and Taurus samples have a similar age. We also find that Upper Scorpius and TWA YSOs have similar ages, and are more evolved than Ophiuchus/Taurus YSOs.

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  2. Abstract

    We used a convolutional neural network to infer stellar rotation periods from a set of synthetic light curves simulated with realistic spot-evolution patterns. We convolved these simulated light curves with real TESS light curves containing minimal intrinsic astrophysical variability to allow the network to learn TESS systematics and estimate rotation periods despite them. In addition to periods, we predict uncertainties via heteroskedastic regression to estimate the credibility of the period predictions. In the most credible half of the test data, we recover 10% accurate periods for 46% of the targets, and 20% accurate periods for 69% of the targets. Using our trained network, we successfully recover periods of real stars with literature rotation measurements, even past the 13.7 day limit generally encountered by TESS rotation searches using conventional period-finding techniques. Our method also demonstrates resistance to half-period aliases. We present the neural network and simulated training data, and introduce the softwarebutterpyused to synthesize the light curves using realistic starspot evolution.

  3. Abstract The distortions of absorption line profiles caused by photospheric brightness variations on the surfaces of cool, main-sequence stars can mimic or overwhelm radial velocity (RV) shifts due to the presence of exoplanets. The latest generation of precision RV spectrographs aims to detect velocity amplitudes ≲ 10 cm s −1 , but requires mitigation of stellar signals. Statistical techniques are being developed to differentiate between Keplerian and activity-related velocity perturbations. Two important challenges, however, are the interpretability of the stellar activity component as RV models become more sophisticated, and ensuring the lowest-amplitude Keplerian signatures are not inadvertently accounted for in flexible models of stellar activity. For the K2V exoplanet host ϵ Eridani, we separately used ground-based photometry to constrain Gaussian processes for modeling RVs and TESS photometry with a light-curve inversion algorithm to reconstruct the stellar surface. From the reconstructions of TESS photometry, we produced an activity model that reduced the rms scatter in RVs obtained with EXPRES from 4.72 to 1.98 m s −1 . We present a pilot study using the CHARA Array and MIRC-X beam combiner to directly image the starspots seen in the TESS photometry. With the limited phase coverage, our spot detections are marginal withmore »current data but a future dedicated observing campaign should allow for imaging, as well as allow the stellar inclination and orientation with respect to the debris disk to be definitively determined. This work shows that stellar surface maps obtained with high-cadence, time-series photometric and interferometric data can provide the constraints needed to accurately reduce RV scatter.« less
  4. Abstract We present spectroscopic measurements of the Rossiter–McLaughlin effect for WASP-148b, the only known hot Jupiter with a nearby warm-Jupiter companion, from the WIYN/NEID and Keck/HIRES instruments. This is one of the first scientific results reported from the newly commissioned NEID spectrograph, as well as the second obliquity constraint for a hot Jupiter system with a close-in companion, after WASP-47. WASP-148b is consistent with being in alignment with the sky-projected spin axis of the host star, with λ = − 8 .° 2 − 9 .° 7 + 8 .° 7 . The low obliquity observed in the WASP-148 system is consistent with the orderly-alignment configuration of most compact multi-planet systems around cool stars with obliquity constraints, including our solar system, and may point to an early history for these well-organized systems in which migration and accretion occurred in isolation, with relatively little disturbance. By contrast, previous results have indicated that high-mass and hot stars appear to more commonly host a wide range of misaligned planets: not only single hot Jupiters, but also compact systems with multiple super-Earths. We suggest that, to account for the high rate of spin–orbit misalignments in both compact multi-planet and isolated-hot-Jupiter systems orbiting high-mass andmore »hot stars, spin–orbit misalignments may be caused by distant giant planet perturbers, which are most common around these stellar types.« less
  5. Abstract

    Measured spectral shifts due to intrinsic stellar variability (e.g., pulsations, granulation) and activity (e.g., spots, plages) are the largest source of error for extreme-precision radial-velocity (EPRV) exoplanet detection. Several methods are designed to disentangle stellar signals from true center-of-mass shifts due to planets. The Extreme-precision Spectrograph (EXPRES) Stellar Signals Project (ESSP) presents a self-consistent comparison of 22 different methods tested on the same extreme-precision spectroscopic data from EXPRES. Methods derived new activity indicators, constructed models for mapping an indicator to the needed radial-velocity (RV) correction, or separated out shape- and shift-driven RV components. Since no ground truth is known when using real data, relative method performance is assessed using the total and nightly scatter of returned RVs and agreement between the results of different methods. Nearly all submitted methods return a lower RV rms than classic linear decorrelation, but no method is yet consistently reducing the RV rms to sub-meter-per-second levels. There is a concerning lack of agreement between the RVs returned by different methods. These results suggest that continued progress in this field necessitates increased interpretability of methods, high-cadence data to capture stellar signals at all timescales, and continued tests like the ESSP using consistent data sets withmore »more advanced metrics for method performance. Future comparisons should make use of various well-characterized data sets—such as solar data or data with known injected planetary and/or stellar signals—to better understand method performance and whether planetary signals are preserved.

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