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Creators/Authors contains: "Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac"

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  1. Abstract

    The filamentary nature of accretion streams found around embedded sources suggests that protostellar disks experience heterogenous infall from the star-forming environment, consistent with the accretion behavior onto star-forming cores in top-down star-cluster formation simulations. This may produce disk substructures in the form of rings, gaps, and spirals that continue to be identified by high-resolution imaging surveys in both embedded Class 0/I and later Class II sources. We present a parameter study of anisotropic infall, informed by the properties of accretion flows onto protostellar cores in numerical simulations, and varying the relative specific angular momentum of incoming flows as well as their flow geometry. Our results show that anisotropic infall perturbs the disk and readily launches the Rossby wave instability. It forms vortices at the inner and outer edges of the infall zone where material is deposited. These vortices drive spiral waves and angular momentum transport, with some models able to drive stresses corresponding to a viscosity parameter on the order ofα∼ 10−2. The resulting azimuthal shear forms robust pressure bumps that act as barriers to radial drift of dust grains, as demonstrated by postprocessing calculations of drift-dominated dust evolution. We discuss how a self-consistent model of anisotropic infall canmore »account for the formation of millimeter rings in the outer disk as well as producing compact dust disks, consistent with observations of embedded sources.

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  2. Abstract The disks of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) may be important sites of binary black hole (BBH) mergers. Here we show via numerical experiments with the high-accuracy, high-precision code SpaceHub that broken symmetry in dynamical encounters in AGN disks can lead to asymmetry between prograde and retrograde BBH mergers. The direction of the hardening asymmetry depends on the initial binary semimajor axis. Under the assumption that the spin of the BHs becomes aligned with the angular momentum of the disk on a short timescale compared with the encounter timescale, an asymmetric distribution of mass-weighted projected spin χ eff is predicted in LIGO–Virgo detections of BBH mergers from AGN disks. In particular, this model predicts that positive χ eff BBH mergers are most likely for encounters with massive tertiaries in migration traps at radial distances ≳500–600 gravitational radii.
  3. Abstract Observations at intermediate redshifts reveal the presence of numerous compact, weak Mg ii absorbers with near to supersolar metallicities, often surrounded by extended regions that produce C iv and/or O vi absorption, in the circumgalactic medium at large impact parameters from luminous galaxies. Their origin and nature remain unclear. We hypothesize that undetected satellite dwarf galaxies are responsible for producing some of these weak Mg ii absorbers. We test our hypothesis using gas dynamical simulations of galactic outflows from a dwarf galaxy with a halo mass of 5 × 10 9 M ⊙ , as might be falling into a larger L * halo at z = 2. We find that thin, filamentary, weak Mg ii absorbers (≲100 pc) are produced in two stages: (1) when shocked core-collapse supernova (SN II)–enriched gas descending in a galactic fountain gets shock compressed by upward flows driven by subsequent SN II and cools (phase 1) and, later, (2) during an outflow driven by Type Ia supernovae that shocks and sweeps up pervasive SN II–enriched gas, which then cools (phase 2). The Mg ii absorbers in our simulations are continuously generated by shocks and cooling with moderate metallicity ∼0.1–0.2 Z ⊙ but lowmore »column density <10 12 cm −2 . They are also surrounded by larger (0.5–1 kpc) C iv absorbers that seem to survive longer. Larger-scale (>1 kpc) C iv and O vi clouds are also produced in both expanding and shocked SN II–enriched gas. Observable ion distributions from our models appear well converged at our standard resolution (12.8 pc). Our simulation highlights the possibility of dwarf galactic outflows producing highly enriched multiphase gas.« less
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