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Creators/Authors contains: "Lu, Xing"

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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 1, 2023
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023

    We present an overview and data release of the spectral line component of the SMA Large Program, CMZoom. CMZoom observed 12CO (2–1), 13CO (2–1), and C18O (2–1), three transitions of H2CO, several transitions of CH3OH, two transitions of OCS, and single transitions of SiO and SO within gas above a column density of N(H2) ≥ 1023 cm−2 in the Central Molecular Zone (CMZ; inner few hundred pc of the Galaxy). We extract spectra from all compact 1.3 mm CMZoom continuum sources and fit line profiles to the spectra. We use the fit results from the H2CO 3(0, 3)–2(0, 2) transition to determine the source kinematic properties. We find ∼90 per cent of the total mass of CMZoom sources have reliable kinematics. Only four compact continuum sources are formally self-gravitating. The remainder are consistent with being in hydrostatic equilibrium assuming that they are confined by the high external pressure in the CMZ. We find only two convincing proto-stellar outflows, ruling out a previously undetected population of very massive, actively accreting YSOs with strong outflows. Finally, despite having sufficient sensitivity and resolution to detect high-velocity compact clouds (HVCCs), which have been claimed as evidence for intermediate mass black holes interacting with molecular gas clouds, we find no suchmore »objects across the large survey area.

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  5. Abstract We observed the high-mass protostellar core G335.579–0.272 ALMA1 at ∼200 au (0.″05) resolution with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) at 226 GHz (with a mass sensitivity of 5 σ = 0.2 M ⊙ at 10 K). We discovered that at least a binary system is forming inside this region, with an additional nearby bow-like structure (≲1000 au) that could add an additional member to the stellar system. These three sources are located at the center of the gravitational potential well of the ALMA1 region and the larger MM1 cluster. The emission from CH 3 OH (and many other tracers) is extended (>1000 au), revealing a common envelope toward the binary system. We use CH 2 CHCN line emission to estimate an inclination angle of the rotation axis of 26° with respect to the line of sight based on geometric assumptions and derive a kinematic mass of the primary source (protostar+disk) of 3.0 M ⊙ within a radius of 230 au. Using SiO emission, we find that the primary source drives the large-scale outflow revealed by previous observations. Precession of the binary system likely produces a change in orientation between the outflow at small scales observed here and largemore »scales observed in previous works. The bow structure may have originated from the entrainment of matter into the envelope due to the widening or precession of the outflow, or, alternatively, an accretion streamer dominated by the gravity of the central sources. An additional third source, forming due to instabilities in the streamer, cannot be ruled out as a temperature gradient is needed to produce the observed absorption spectra.« less

    Young massive clusters (YMCs) are compact (≲1 pc), high-mass (>104 M⊙) stellar systems of significant scientific interest. Due to their rarity and rapid formation, we have very few examples of YMC progenitor gas clouds before star formation has begun. As a result, the initial conditions required for YMC formation are uncertain. We present high resolution (0.13 arcsec, ∼1000 au) ALMA observations and Mopra single-dish data, showing that Galactic Centre dust ridge ‘Cloud d’ (G0.412 + 0.052, mass = 7.6 × 104 M⊙, radius = 3.2 pc) has the potential to become an Arches-like YMC (104 M⊙, r ∼ 1 pc), but is not yet forming stars. This would mean it is the youngest known pre-star-forming massive cluster and therefore could be an ideal laboratory for studying the initial conditions of YMC formation. We find 96 sources in the dust continuum, with masses ≲3 M⊙ and radii of ∼103 au. The source masses and separations are more consistent with thermal rather than turbulent fragmentation. It is not possible to unambiguously determine the dynamical state of most of the sources, as the uncertainty on virial parameter estimates is large. We find evidence for large-scale (∼1 pc) converging gas flows, which could cause the cloud to grow rapidly, gaining 104 M⊙ within 105 yr. The highest density gas is found atmore »the convergent point of the large-scale flows. We expect this cloud to form many high-mass stars, but find no high-mass starless cores. If the sources represent the initial conditions for star formation, the resulting initial mass function will be bottom heavy.

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