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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 30, 2025
  2. Abstract

    Motivated by the challenge of sampling Gibbs measures with nonconvex potentials, we study a continuum birth–death dynamics. We improve results in previous works (Liuet al2023Appl. Math. Optim.8748; Luet al2019 arXiv:1905.09863) and provide weaker hypotheses under which the probability density of the birth–death governed by Kullback–Leibler divergence or byχ2divergence converge exponentially fast to the Gibbs equilibrium measure, with a universal rate that is independent of the potential barrier. To build a practical numerical sampler based on the pure birth–death dynamics, we consider an interacting particle system, which is inspired by the gradient flow structure and the classical Fokker–Planck equation and relies on kernel-based approximations of the measure. Using the technique of Γ-convergence of gradient flows, we show that on the torus, smooth and bounded positive solutions of the kernelised dynamics converge on finite time intervals, to the pure birth–death dynamics as the kernel bandwidth shrinks to zero. Moreover we provide quantitative estimates on the bias of minimisers of the energy corresponding to the kernelised dynamics. Finally we prove the long-time asymptotic results on the convergence of the asymptotic states of the kernelised dynamics towards the Gibbs measure.

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  3. Deep operator network (DeepONet) has demonstrated great success in various learning tasks, including learning solution operators of partial differential equations. In particular, it pro- vides an efficient approach to predict the evolution equations in a finite time horizon. Nevertheless, the vanilla DeepONet suffers from the issue of stability degradation in the long- time prediction. This paper proposes a transfer-learning aided DeepONet to enhance the stability. Our idea is to use transfer learning to sequentially update the DeepONets as the surro- gates for propagators learned in different time frames. The evolving DeepONets can better track the varying complexities of the evolution equations, while only need to be updated by efficient training of a tiny fraction of the operator networks. Through systematic experiments, we show that the proposed method not only improves the long-time accuracy of Deep- ONet while maintaining similar computational cost but also substantially reduces the sample size of the training set. 
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  4. This paper analyzes the generalization error of two-layer neural networks for computing the ground state of the Schrödinger operator on a d d -dimensional hypercube with Neumann boundary condition. We prove that the convergence rate of the generalization error is independent of dimension d d , under the a priori assumption that the ground state lies in a spectral Barron space. We verify such assumption by proving a new regularity estimate for the ground state in the spectral Barron space. The latter is achieved by a fixed point argument based on the Krein-Rutman theorem. 
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  5. Belkin, Mikhail ; Kpotufe, Samory (Ed.)