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  1. DELAUNAYSPARSE contains both serial and parallel codes written in Fortran 2003 (with OpenMP) for performing medium- to high-dimensional interpolation via the Delaunay triangulation. To accommodate the exponential growth in the size of the Delaunay triangulation in high dimensions, DELAUNAYSPARSE computes only a sparse subset of the complete Delaunay triangulation, as necessary for performing interpolation at the user specified points. This article includes algorithm and implementation details, complexity and sensitivity analyses, usage information, and a brief performance study.
  2. Abstract Key message The first cytological characterization of the 2N v S segment in hexaploid wheat; complete de novo assembly and annotation of 2N v S segment; 2N v S frequency is increasing 2N v S and is associated with higher yield. Abstract The Aegilops ventricosa 2N v S translocation segment has been utilized in breeding disease-resistant wheat crops since the early 1990s. This segment is known to possess several important resistance genes against multiple wheat diseases including root knot nematode, stripe rust, leaf rust and stem rust. More recently, this segment has been associated with resistance to wheat blast, an emerging and devastating wheat disease in South America and Asia. To date, full characterization of the segment including its size, gene content and its association with grain yield is lacking. Here, we present a complete cytological and physical characterization of this agronomically important translocation in bread wheat. We de novo assembled the 2N v S segment in two wheat varieties, ‘Jagger’ and ‘CDC Stanley,’ and delineated the segment to be approximately 33 Mb. A total of 535 high-confidence genes were annotated within the 2N v S region, with > 10% belonging to the nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) gene families. Identification of groupsmore »of NLR genes that are potentially N genome-specific and expressed in specific tissues can fast-track testing of candidate genes playing roles in various disease resistances. We also show the increasing frequency of 2N v S among spring and winter wheat breeding programs over two and a half decades, and the positive impact of 2N v S on wheat grain yield based on historical datasets. The significance of the 2N v S segment in wheat breeding due to resistance to multiple diseases and a positive impact on yield highlights the importance of understanding and characterizing the wheat pan-genome for better insights into molecular breeding for wheat improvement.« less
  3. Abstract Rye ( Secale cereale L.) is an exceptionally climate-resilient cereal crop, used extensively to produce improved wheat varieties via introgressive hybridization and possessing the entire repertoire of genes necessary to enable hybrid breeding. Rye is allogamous and only recently domesticated, thus giving cultivated ryes access to a diverse and exploitable wild gene pool. To further enhance the agronomic potential of rye, we produced a chromosome-scale annotated assembly of the 7.9-gigabase rye genome and extensively validated its quality by using a suite of molecular genetic resources. We demonstrate applications of this resource with a broad range of investigations. We present findings on cultivated rye’s incomplete genetic isolation from wild relatives, mechanisms of genome structural evolution, pathogen resistance, low-temperature tolerance, fertility control systems for hybrid breeding and the yield benefits of rye–wheat introgressions.