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  1. Thin-film lithium-niobate-on-insulator (LNOI) has emerged as a superior integrated-photonics platform for linear, nonlinear, and electro-optics. Here we combine quasi-phase-matching, dispersion engineering, and tight mode confinement to realize nonlinear parametric processes with both high efficiency and wide wavelength tunability. On a millimeter-long, Z-cut LNOI waveguide, we demonstrate efficient (1900±<#comment/>500%<#comment/>W−<#comment/>1cm−<#comment/>2) and highly tunable (−<#comment/>1.71nm/K) second-harmonic generation from 1530 to 1583 nm by type-0 quasi-phase-matching. Our technique is applicable to optical harmonic generation, quantum light sources, frequency conversion, and many other photonic information processes across visible to mid-IR spectral bands.

     
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  2. Abstract Background and objectives

    Rice with very low amylose content tends to have a good taste, while germ‐remaining rice is nutritive because it retains nutrient‐rich embryos. We cultivated a batch of new germ‐remaining rice varieties with very low amylose content, and good nutrition and taste. We tested the differences in taste quality between superior and inferior grains.

    Findings

    The plumule ratio of superior grain was significantly higher than that of inferior grain. The elasticity of the surface layer and whole layer of superior grains was greatly reduced, whereas quality of balance (stickiness/hardness) and tackiness were increased. The proportion of apparent amylose content (AAC) and amylopectin long‐chain branching (Fb3) decreased, whereas the proportion of medium‐length branches (Fb1+2) increased significantly. Correlation analysis showed that small value of aspect ratio and low proportion Fb3, especially the former, can improve the quality of balance of rice. Moreover, plumule ratio showed a high correlation with grain shape and filling degree.

    Conclusions

    Therefore, for the specially developed rice, plumule ratio and edibility can be improved by promoting grain plumpness and weight ratio of the embryo, especially the inferior grain.

    Significance and novelty

    For rice taste improving, the contribution of grain filling was greater than that of chemical changes in the endosperm composition, and breeders should pay attention to grain shape improvement and filling to improve the taste of rice.

     
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