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    In the new era of time-domain surveys, Type Ia supernovae are being caught sooner after explosion, which has exposed significant variation in their early light curves. Two driving factors for early-time evolution are the distribution of 56Ni in the ejecta and the presence of flux excesses of various causes. We perform an analysis of the largest young SN Ia sample to date. We compare 115 SN Ia light curves from the Zwicky Transient Facility to the turtls model grid containing light curves of Chandrasekhar mass explosions with a range of 56Ni masses, 56Ni distributions, and explosion energies. We find that the majority of our observed light curves are well reproduced by Chandrasekhar mass explosion models with a preference for highly extended 56Ni distributions. We identify six SNe Ia with an early-time flux excess in our gr-band data (four ‘blue’ and two ‘red’ flux excesses). We find an intrinsic rate of 18 ± 11 per cent of early flux excesses in SNe Ia at z < 0.07, based on three detected flux excesses out of 30 (10 per cent) observed SNe Ia with a simulated efficiency of 57 per cent. This is comparable to rates of flux excesses in the literature but also accounts for detection efficiencies. Two of thesemore »events are mostly consistent with circumstellar material interaction, while the other four have longer lifetimes in agreement with companion interaction and 56Ni-clump models. We find a higher frequency of flux excesses in 91T/99aa-like events (44 ± 13 per cent).

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  2. The late Quaternary fossil record provides crucial data that demonstrate how organisms respond to climate change. These records have been used to great effect, demonstrating that no-analog communities frequently occur during periods of no-analog climate, and that taxa demonstrate individualistic responses to change. However, our efforts to reconstruct biotic responses to environmental change are frequently hampered by inconsistent sampling and differential preservation of fossil taxa. We leveraged occupancy modeling methods and the fossil pollen record across eastern North America to identify circumstances under which occupancy modeling improves our ability to estimate relative abundance in four pollen taxa (Cornus, Fagus, Picea, and Pinus) through time (15 kya to present) and to identify localities where data are unreliable reflections of the local community. We found that integrating observed pollen abundance and detectability improves model performance. Low genus richness and large basin area were consistently important determinants of low detection. Our occupancy models were most informative for taxa with high enough variation in observed pollen abundance for models to be adequately calibrated. We combined occupancy model estimates of pollen abundance and detectability with a Getis-Ord statistical approach to identify spatial clusters of high or low detectability, identifying regions where a taxon’s pollen ismore »more (or less) reliable. This work will advance the integration of ecological and paleontological sciences by allowing us to better identify whether a pollen taxon is truly absent from a fossil site or if it has simply gone undetected, allowing us to produce more robust paleoecological models. This approach will bolster our ability to identify the responses of plant communities to past climatic and anthropogenic change so that we can improve our predictions of future responses.« less
  3. We present the bolometric lightcurve, identification and analysis of the progenitor candidate, and preliminary modelling of AT 2016jbu (Gaia16cfr). We find a progenitor consistent with a ∼ 22–25 M⊙ yellow hypergiant surrounded by a dusty circumstellar shell, in agreement with what has been previously reported. We see evidence for significant photometric variability in the progenitor, as well as strong Hα emission consistent with pre-existing circumstellar material. The age of the environment as well as the resolved stellar population surrounding AT 2016jbu, support a progenitor age of >10 Myr, consistent with a progenitor mass of ∼22 M⊙. A joint analysis of the velocity evolution of AT 2016jbu, and the photospheric radius inferred from the bolometric lightcurve shows the transient is consistent with two successive outbursts/explosions. The first outburst ejected material with velocity ∼650 km s−1, while the second, more energetic event, ejected material at ∼4500 km s−1. Whether the latter is the core-collapse of the progenitor remains uncertain. We place a limit on the ejected 56Ni mass of <0.016M⊙. Using the bpass code, we explore a wide range of possible progenitor systems, and find that the majority of these are in binaries, some of which are undergoing mass transfer or common envelope evolution immediately prior to explosion. Finally, we use the snecmore »code to demonstrate that the low-energy explosion within some of these binary systems, together with sufficient CSM, can reproduce the overall morphology of the lightcurve of AT 2016jbu.« less
  4. We present the results from a high cadence, multi-wavelength observation campaign of AT 2016jbu, (aka Gaia16cfr) an interacting transient. This dataset complements the current literature by adding higher cadence as well as extended coverage of the lightcurve evolution and late-time spectroscopic evolution. Photometric coverage reveals that AT 2016jbuunderwent significant photometric variability followed by two luminous events, the latter of which reached an absolute magnitude of MV ∼ −18.5 mag. This is similar to the transient SN 2009ipwhose nature is still debated. Spectra are dominated by narrow emission lines and show a blue continuum during the peak of the second event. AT 2016jbushows signatures of a complex, non-homogeneous circumstellar material (CSM). We see slowly evolving asymmetric hydrogen line profiles, with velocities of 500 km s−1seen in narrow emission features from a slow moving CSM, and up to 10,000 km s−1seen in broad absorption from some high velocity material. Late-time spectra (∼ +1 year) show a lack of forbidden emission lines expected from a core-collapse supernova and are dominated by strong emission from H, He i and Ca ii. Strong asymmetric emission features, a bumpy lightcurve, and continually evolving spectra suggest an inhibit nebular phase. We compare the evolution of Hα among SN 2009ip-like transients and find possible evidence for orientation angle effects. The light-curvemore »evolution of AT 2016jbusuggests similar, but not identical, circumstellar environments to other SN 2009ip-like transients.« less

    Samples of young Type Ia supernovae have shown ‘early excess’ emission in a few cases. Similar excesses are predicted by some explosion and progenitor scenarios and hence can provide important clues regarding the origin of thermonuclear supernovae. They are, however, only predicted to last up to the first few days following explosion. It is therefore unclear whether such scenarios are intrinsically rare or whether the relatively small sample size simply reflects the difficulty in obtaining sufficiently early detections. To that end, we perform toy simulations covering a range of survey depths and cadences, and investigate the efficiency with which young Type Ia supernovae are recovered. As input for our simulations, we use models that broadly cover the range of predicted luminosities. Based on our simulations, we find that in a typical 3 d cadence survey, only ∼10 per cent of Type Ia supernovae would be detected early enough to rule out the presence of an excess. A 2 d cadence, however, should see this increase to ∼15 per cent. We find comparable results from more detailed simulations of the Zwicky Transient Facility surveys. Using the recovery efficiencies from these detailed simulations, we investigate the number of young Type Ia supernovae expected to bemore »discovered assuming some fraction of the population comes from scenarios producing an excess at early times. Comparing the results of our simulations to observations, we find that the intrinsic fraction of Type Ia supernovae with early flux excesses is $\sim 28^{+13}_{-11}{{\ \rm per\ cent}}$.

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  6. ABSTRACT We present the data and analysis of SN 2018gjx, an unusual low-luminosity transient with three distinct spectroscopic phases. Phase I shows a hot blue spectrum with signatures of ionized circumstellar material (CSM), Phase II has the appearance of broad SN features, consistent with those seen in a Type IIb supernova at maximum light, and Phase III is that of a supernova interacting with helium-rich CSM, similar to a Type Ibn supernova. This event provides an apparently rare opportunity to view the inner workings of an interacting supernova. The observed properties can be explained by the explosion of a star in an aspherical CSM. The initial light is emitted from an extended CSM (∼4000 R⊙), which ionizes the exterior unshocked material. Some days after, the SN photosphere envelops this region, leading to the appearance of a SN IIb. Over time, the photosphere recedes in velocity space, revealing interaction between the supernova ejecta and the CSM that partially obscures the supernova nebular phase. Modelling of the initial spectrum reveals a surface composition consistent with compact H-deficient Wolf–Rayet and Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars. Such configurations may not be unusual, with SNe IIb being known to have signs of interaction so at least somemore »SNe IIb and SNe Ibn may be the same phenomena viewed from different angles, or possibly with differing CSM configurations.« less
  7. We present the spectroscopic and photometric study of five intermediate-luminosity red transients (ILRTs), namely AT 2010dn, AT 2012jc, AT 2013la, AT 2013lb, and AT 2018aes. They share common observational properties and belong to a family of objects similar to the prototypical ILRT SN 2008S. These events have a rise time that is less than 15 days and absolute peak magnitudes of between −11.5 and −14.5 mag. Their pseudo-bolometric light curves peak in the range 0.5–9.0 × 10 40  erg s −1 and their total radiated energies are on the order of (0.3–3) × 10 47 erg. After maximum brightness, the light curves show a monotonic decline or a plateau, resembling those of faint supernovae IIL or IIP, respectively. At late phases, the light curves flatten, roughly following the slope of the 56 Co decay. If the late-time power source is indeed radioactive decay, these transients produce 56 Ni masses on the order of 10 −4 to 10 −3   M ⊙ . The spectral energy distribution of our ILRT sample, extending from the optical to the mid-infrared (MIR) domain, reveals a clear IR excess soon after explosion and non-negligible MIR emission at very late phases. The spectra show prominent H lines in emissionmore »with a typical velocity of a few hundred km s −1 , along with Ca II features. In particular, the [Ca  II ] λ 7291,7324 doublet is visible at all times, which is a characteristic feature for this family of transients. The identified progenitor of SN 2008S, which is luminous in archival Spitzer MIR images, suggests an intermediate-mass precursor star embedded in a dusty cocoon. We propose the explosion of a super-asymptotic giant branch star forming an electron-capture supernova as a plausible explanation for these events.« less
  8. ABSTRACT We present results from spectroscopic observations of AT 2018hyz, a transient discovered by the All-Sky Automated Survey for Supernova survey at an absolute magnitude of MV ∼ −20.2 mag, in the nucleus of a quiescent galaxy with strong Balmer absorption lines. AT 2018hyz shows a blue spectral continuum and broad emission lines, consistent with previous TDE candidates. High cadence follow-up spectra show broad Balmer lines and He i in early spectra, with He ii making an appearance after ∼70–100 d. The Balmer lines evolve from a smooth broad profile, through a boxy, asymmetric double-peaked phase consistent with accretion disc emission, and back to smooth at late times. The Balmer lines are unlike typical active galactic nucleus in that they show a flat Balmer decrement (Hα/Hβ ∼ 1.5), suggesting the lines are collisionally excited rather than being produced via photoionization. The flat Balmer decrement together with the complex profiles suggests that the emission lines originate in a disc chromosphere, analogous to those seen in cataclysmic variables. The low optical depth of material due to a possible partial disruption may be what allows us to observe these double-peaked, collisionally excited lines. The late appearance of He ii may be due to an expanding photosphere or outflow, ormore »late-time shocks in debris collisions.« less
  9. ABSTRACT We present the photometric and spectroscopic evolution of the Type II supernova (SN II) SN 2017ivv (also known as ASASSN-17qp). Located in an extremely faint galaxy (Mr = −10.3 mag), SN 2017ivv shows an unprecedented evolution during the 2 yr of observations. At early times, the light curve shows a fast rise (∼6−8 d) to a peak of ${\it M}^{\rm max}_{g}= -17.84$ mag, followed by a very rapid decline of 7.94 ± 0.48 mag per 100 d in the V band. The extensive photometric coverage at late phases shows that the radioactive tail has two slopes, one steeper than that expected from the decay of 56Co (between 100 and 350 d), and another slower (after 450 d), probably produced by an additional energy source. From the bolometric light curve, we estimated that the amount of ejected 56Ni is ∼0.059 ± 0.003 M⊙. The nebular spectra of SN 2017ivv show a remarkable transformation that allows the evolution to be split into three phases: (1) Hα strong phase (<200 d); (2) Hα weak phase (between 200 and 350 d); and (3) Hα broad phase (>500 d). We find that the nebular analysis favours a binary progenitor and an asymmetric explosion. Finally, comparing the nebular spectra of SN 2017ivv to models suggests a progenitor with a zero-age main-sequence mass of 15–17 M⊙.