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  1. Bilayer (BL) two-dimensional boron (i.e., borophene) emerges very recently and holds promise for fascinating physical properties and a variety of electronic applications. Despite this potential, the fundamental chemical properties of BL borophene which form the critical foundation of practical applications has been unexplored. Here, we present atomic-level chemical studies of BL borophene using ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (UHV-TERS). UHV-TERS identifies the vibrational fingerprint of BL borophene from mixed-dimensional borophene polymorphs with angstrom-scale chemical spatial resolution. The observed Raman mode is directly correlated with the vibrations of interlayer boron-boron bonds, validating the three-dimensional lattice geometry of BL borophene. By virtue of the single-bond sensitivity of UHV-TERS to oxygen adatoms, we demonstrate the enhanced chemical stability of BL borophene compared to its monolayer counterpart by exposure to controlled oxidizing atmospheres under UHV. In addition to revealing fundamental chemical insights into BL borophene, this work establishes UHV-TERS as a powerful tool to probe interlayer bonding and chemical properties of layered materials at the atomic scale. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 15, 2024
  2. Abstract

    Sub-nanometer-resolved TERS provides a systematic way for investigating tip-molecule interaction and molecular motions, enabling a promising approach to examine on-surface reaction mechanisms and catalysis at the microscopic level.

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  3. Abstract Surface-bound reactions have become a viable method to develop nanoarchitectures through bottom-up assembly with near atomic precision. However, the bottom-up fabrication of nanostructures on surfaces requires careful consideration of the intrinsic properties of the precursors and substrate as well as the complex interplay of any interactions that arise in the heterogeneous two-dimensional (2D) system. Therefore, it becomes necessary to consider these systems with characterization methods sensitive to such properties with suitable spatial resolution. Here, low temperature ultrahigh vacuum scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) were used to investigate the formation of 2D covalent networks via coupling reactions of tetra(4-bromophenyl)porphyrin (Br 4 TPP) molecules on a Ag(100) substrate. Through the combination of STM topographic imaging and TERS vibrational fingerprints, the conformation of molecular precursors on the substrate was understood. Following the thermally activated coupling reaction, STM and TERS imaging confirm the covalent nature of the 2D networks and suggest that the apparent disorder arises from molecular flexibility. 
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  4. Abstract

    The chemical interrogation of individual atomic adsorbates on a surface significantly contributes to understanding the atomic-scale processes behind on-surface reactions. However, it remains highly challenging for current imaging or spectroscopic methods to achieve such a high chemical spatial resolution. Here we show that single oxygen adatoms on a boron monolayer (i.e., borophene) can be identified and mapped via ultrahigh vacuum tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (UHV-TERS) with ~4.8 Å spatial resolution and single bond (B–O) sensitivity. With this capability, we realize the atomically defined, chemically homogeneous, and thermally reversible oxidation of borophene via atomic oxygen in UHV. Furthermore, we reveal the propensity of borophene towards molecular oxygen activation at room temperature and phase-dependent chemical properties. In addition to offering atomic-level insights into the oxidation of borophene, this work demonstrates UHV-TERS as a powerful tool to probe the local chemistry of surface adsorbates in the atomic regime with widespread utilities in heterogeneous catalysis, on-surface molecular engineering, and low-dimensional materials.

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  5. Gaining valuable insight into chemistry-related fields, such as molecular and catalytic systems, surface science, and biochemistry, requires probing physical and chemical processes at the sub-nanoscale level. Recent progress and advancements in nano-optics and nano-photonics, particularly in scanning near-field optical microscopy, have enabled the coupling of light with nano-objects using surface plasmons with sub-nanoscale precision, providing access to photophysical and photochemical processes. Herein, this review highlights the basic concepts of surface plasmons and recent experimental findings of tip-assisted plasmon-induced research works and offers a glimpse into future perspectives.

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  7. Hydrogen-doped perovskites can be reconfigured by electrical pulses to take on all essential functions necessary for artificial intelligence hardware. 
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