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Stereoregularity significantly influences the crystallization, mechanical, and thermal properties of polymers. In this work, we investigate crystallization behaviors and molecular dynamics of atactic (a)-, isotactic (i)-, and syndiotactic (s)-hydrogenated poly(norbornene) (hPNB)s by using small-angle X-ray scattering and solid-state (ss) NMR. a-hPNB exhibits a much higher crystallinity (Φc) (82%) and long period (L) (80 nm) than i- and s-hPNB (50–55% and 17–21 nm). Moreover, in the s-hPNB crystalline region, chain dynamics is not thermally activated up to the melting temperature (Tm), while in the crystalline regions of i- and a-hPNB, small amplitude motions occur in a slow dynamic regime of 10–2–102 s. The molecular dynamics follows Arrhenius behavior in a-hPNB up to the crystal–crystal transition temperature (Tcc), while these dynamics are surprisingly saturated in i-hPNB under these conditions. Temperature dependence of the molecular dynamics leads to different crystal–crystal transitions between i- and a-hPNBs: i-hPNB changes the trans conformation to the gauche one due to the localized bond rotations where chain dynamics is restricted, whereas a-hPNB keeps a nearly trans conformation and conducts fast chain dynamics due to the amplified C–C bond rotations in the high-temperature phase. Such fast chain dynamics leads to unique crystallization behaviors of hPNB, specifically in the atacticmore »
Effects of Rigid Amorphous Fraction and Lamellar Crystal Orientation on Electrical Insulation of Poly(ethylene terephthalate) FilmsIn response to the stringent requirements for future DC-link capacitors in electric vehicles (EVs), it is desirable to develop dielectric polymer films with high-temperature tolerance (at least 105 °C) and low loss (dissipation factor, tan δ < 0.003). Although the biaxially oriented poly(ethylene terephthalate) (BOPET) film has an alleged temperature rating of 120 °C, its dielectric performance in terms of breakdown strength and lifetime cannot satisfy the stringent requirements for power electronics in EVs. In this work, we carried out a structure–electrical insulation property relationship study to understand the working mechanism for various PET films, including a commercial BOPET film, an amorphous PET (AmPET) film, and two annealed PET films (AnPET, i.e., cold-crystallized from AmPET). Structural analyses revealed a uniform edge-on crystalline orientation in BOPET with the a* axis in the film normal direction. Meanwhile, a high content of the rigid amorphous fraction (RAF) was identified for BOPET, which resulted from biaxial stretching during processing. On the contrary, AnPET films had a random crystal orientation with lower RAF contents. From dielectric breakdown and lifetime studies, the high-crystallinity AnPET film exhibited better electrical insulation than BOPET, and AmPET had the worst electrical insulation. Electrical conductivity results revealed that the high RAF contentmore »