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Subducted organic matter buffered by marine carbonate rules the carbon isotopic signature of arc emissionsAbstract Ocean sediments consist mainly of calcium carbonate and organic matter (phytoplankton debris). Once subducted, some carbon is removed from the slab and returns to the atmosphere as CO 2 in arc magmas. Its isotopic signature is thought to reflect the bulk fraction of inorganic (carbonate) and organic (graphitic) carbon in the sedimentary source. Here we challenge this assumption by experimentally investigating model sediments composed of 13 C-CaCO 3 + 12 C-graphite interacting with water at pressure, temperature and redox conditions of an average slab–mantle interface beneath arcs. We show that oxidative dissolution of graphite is the main process controllingmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2023
Answering complex questions about textual narratives requires reasoning over both stated context and the world knowledge that underlies it. However, pretrained language models (LM), the foundation of most modern QA systems, do not robustly represent latent relationships between concepts, which is necessary for reasoning. While knowledge graphs (KG) are often used to augment LMs with structured representations of world knowledge, it remains an open question how to effectively fuse and reason over the KG representations and the language context, which provides situational constraints and nuances. In this work, we propose GreaseLM, a new model that fuses encoded representations from pretrainedmore »Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023