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  1. The detection of the binary black hole merger GW190521, with primary mass 85+21−14 M⊙ , proved the existence of black holes in the theoretically predicted pair-instability gap ( ∼60−120M⊙ ) of their mass spectrum. Some recent studies suggest that such massive black holes could be produced by the collision of an evolved star with a carbon-oxygen core and a main sequence star. Such a post-coalescence star could end its life avoiding the pair-instability regime and with a direct collapse of its very massive envelope. It is still not clear, however, how the collision shapes the structure of the newly produced star and how much mass is actually lost in the impact. We investigated this issue by means of hydrodynamical simulations with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code StarSmasher, finding that a head-on collision can remove up to 12% of the initial mass of the colliding stars. This is a non-negligible percentage of the initial mass and could affect the further evolution of the stellar remnant, particularly in terms of the final mass of a possibly forming black hole. We also found that the main sequence star can plunge down to the outer boundary of the carbon-oxygen core of the primary, changingmore »the inner chemical composition of the remnant. The collision expels the outer layers of the primary, leaving a remnant with an helium-enriched envelope (reaching He fractions of about 0.4 at the surface). These more complex abundance profiles can be directly used in stellar evolution simulations of the collision product.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023

    The association of GRB170817A with a binary neutron star (BNS) merger has revealed that BNSs produce at least a fraction of short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs). As gravitational wave (GW) detectors push their horizons, it is important to assess coupled electromagnetic (EM)/GW probabilities and maximize observational prospects. Here, we perform BNS population synthesis calculations with the code mobse, seeding the binaries in galaxies at three representative redshifts, $z$ = 0.01, 0.1, and 1 of the Illustris TNG50 simulation. The binaries are evolved and their locations numerically tracked in the host galactic potentials until merger. Adopting the microphysics parameters of GRB170817A, we numerically compute the broad-band light curves of jets from BNS mergers, with the afterglow brightness dependent on the local medium density at the merger site. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of the resulting EM population assuming either a random viewing angle with respect to the jet, or a jet aligned with the orbital angular momentum of the binary, which biases the viewing angle probability for GW-triggered events. We find a gamma-ray detection probability of $\sim\!2{{\rm per\ cent}},10{{\rm per\ cent}},\mathrm{and}\ 40{{\rm per\ cent}}$ for BNSs at $z$ = 1, 0.1, and 0.01, respectively, for the random case, rising to $\sim\!75{{\rm per\ cent}}$more »for the $z$ = 0.01, GW-triggered aligned case. Afterglow detection probabilities of GW-triggered BNS mergers vary in the range of $\sim \! 0.3 \!-\! 0.5{{\rm per\ cent}}$, with higher values for aligned jets, and are comparable across the high- and low-energy bands, unlike gamma-ray-triggered events (cosmological SGRBs) which are significantly brighter at higher energies. We further quantify observational biases with respect to host galaxy masses.

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