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  1. Abstract Efficient energy consumption is crucial for achieving sustainable energy goals in the era of climate change and grid modernization. Thus, it is vital to understand how energy is consumed at finer resolutions such as household in order to plan demand-response events or analyze impacts of weather, electricity prices, electric vehicles, solar, and occupancy schedules on energy consumption. However, availability and access to detailed energy-use data, which would enable detailed studies, has been rare. In this paper, we release a unique, large-scale, digital-twin of residential energy-use dataset for the residential sector across the contiguous United States covering millions of households. The data comprise of hourly energy use profiles for synthetic households, disaggregated into Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCL) and appliance use. The underlying framework is constructed using a bottom-up approach. Diverse open-source surveys and first principles models are used for end-use modeling. Extensive validation of the synthetic dataset has been conducted through comparisons with reported energy-use data. We present a detailed, open, high resolution, residential energy-use dataset for the United States. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Abstract Understanding the scope, prevalence, and impact of the COVID-19 pandemic response will be a rich ground for research for many years. Key to the response to COVID-19 was the non-pharmaceutical intervention (NPI) measures, such as mask mandates or stay-in-place orders. For future pandemic preparedness, it is critical to understand the impact and scope of these interventions. Given the ongoing nature of the pandemic, existing NPI studies covering only the initial portion provide only a narrow view of the impact of NPI measures. This paper describes a dataset of NPI measures taken by counties in the U.S. state of Virginia that include measures taken over the first two years of the pandemic beginning in March 2020. This data enables analyses of NPI measures over a long time period that can produce impact analyses on both the individual NPI effectiveness in slowing the pandemic spread, and the impact of various NPI measures on the behavior and conditions of the different counties and state. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 25, 2024
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  7. Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 14, 2024
  8. Abstract Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) constitute the front-line responses against epidemics. Yet, the interdependence of control measures and individual microeconomics, beliefs, perceptions and health incentives, is not well understood. Epidemics constitute complex adaptive systems where individual behavioral decisions drive and are driven by, among other things, the risk of infection. To study the impact of heterogeneous behavioral responses on the epidemic burden, we formulate a two risk-groups mathematical model that incorporates individual behavioral decisions driven by risk perceptions. Our results show a trade-off between the efforts to avoid infection by the risk-evader population, and the proportion of risk-taker individuals with relaxed infection risk perceptions. We show that, in a structured population, privately computed optimal behavioral responses may lead to an increase in the final size of the epidemic, when compared to the homogeneous behavior scenario. Moreover, we find that uncertain information on the individuals’ true health state may lead to worse epidemic outcomes, ultimately depending on the population’s risk-group composition. Finally, we find there is a set of specific optimal planning horizons minimizing the final epidemic size, which depend on the population structure. 
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  9. Real-time forecasting of non-stationary time series is a challenging problem, especially when the time series evolves rapidly. For such cases, it has been observed that ensemble models consisting of a diverse set of model classes can perform consistently better than individual models. In order to account for the nonstationarity of the data and the lack of availability of training examples, the models are retrained in real-time using the most recent observed data samples. Motivated by the robust performance properties of ensemble models, we developed a Bayesian model averaging ensemble technique consisting of statistical, deep learning, and compartmental models for fore-casting epidemiological signals, specifically, COVID-19 signals. We observed the epidemic dynamics go through several phases (waves). In our ensemble model, we observed that different model classes performed differently during the various phases. Armed with this understanding, in this paper, we propose a modification to the ensembling method to employ this phase information and use different weighting schemes for each phase to produce improved forecasts. However, predicting the phases of such time series is a significant challenge, especially when behavioral and immunological adaptations govern the evolution of the time series. We explore multiple datasets that can serve as leading indicators of trend changes and employ transfer entropy techniques to capture the relevant indicator. We propose a phase prediction algorithm to estimate the phases using the leading indicators. Using the knowledge of the estimated phase, we selectively sample the training data from similar phases. We evaluate our proposed methodology on our currently deployed COVID-19 forecasting model and the COVID-19 ForecastHub models. The overall performance of the proposed model is consistent across the pandemic. More importantly, it is ranked second during two critical rapid growth phases in cases, regimes where the performance of most models from the ForecastHub dropped significantly. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 17, 2023
  10. The Russian invasion of Ukraine on February 24, 2022, has displaced more than a quarter of the population. Assessing disease burdens among displaced people is instrumental in informing global public health and humanitarian aid efforts. We estimated the disease burden in Ukrainians displaced both within Ukraine and to other countries by combining a spatiotemporal model of forcible displacement with age- and gender-specific estimates of cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, cancer, HIV, and tuberculosis (TB) in each of Ukraine’s 629 raions (i.e., districts). Among displaced Ukrainians as of May 13, we estimated that more than 2.63 million have CVDs, at least 615,000 have diabetes, and over 98,500 have cancer. In addition, more than 86,000 forcibly displaced individuals are living with HIV, and approximately 13,500 have TB. We estimated that the disease prevalence among refugees was lower than the national disease prevalence before the invasion. Accounting for internal displacement and healthcare facilities impacted by the conflict, we estimated that the number of people per hospital has increased by more than two-fold in some areas. As regional healthcare systems come under increasing strain, these estimates can inform the allocation of critical resources under shifting disease burdens. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available February 21, 2024