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  1. Soil atmosphere fluxes of the trace gases; carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) have been measured at several locations at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) including 1) the “freeze” study reference plots that provide contrast between stands dominated (80%) by sugar maple versus yellow birch and low and high elevation areas, 2) the Bear Brook Watershed where trace gas sampling is coordinated with long-term monitoring of microbial biomass and activity and 3) watershed 1 where trace gas sampling locations were co-located with long-term microbial biomass and activity monitoring sites that are located near a subset of the lysimeter sites established for the calcium addition study on this watershed. This dataset contains the Watershed 1 and Bear Brook data. Freeze plot trace gas can be found in: https://portal.edirepository.org/nis/mapbrowse?scope=knb-lter-hbr&identifier=251. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 
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  2. The Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) established a network of long-term permanent biogeochemical study plots in 1998. These plots provide long-term data on vegetation, soil and hydrologic processes in the key ecosystem types within the urban ecosystem. The network of study plots includes forest plots (upland and riparian), chosen to represent the range of forest conditions in the area and grass plots (to represent home lawns). Plots are instrumented with lysimeters (drainage and tension) to sample soil solution chemistry, time domain reflectometry probes to measure soil moisture, dataloggers to measure and record soil temperature, and trace gas flux chambers to measure the flux of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane from soil to the atmosphere. Measurements of in situ nitrogen mineralization, nitrification and denitrification were made at approximately monthly intervals from Fall 1998 - Fall 2000. Detailed vegetation characterization (all layers) was done in summer 1998 and 2015. Data from these plots has been published in Groffman et al. (2006, 2009), Groffman and Pouyat (2009), Savva et al. (2010), Costa and Groffman (2013), Duncan et al. (2013), Waters et al. (2014), Ni and Groffman (2018), Templeton et al. (2019). Literature Cited Costa, K.H. and P.M. Groffman. 2013. Factors regulating net methane flux in urban forests and grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:850 - 855. Duncan, J. M., L. E. Band, and P. M. Groffman. 2013. Towards closing the watershed nitrogen budget: Spatial and temporal scaling of denitrification. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences 118:1-5; DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20090 Groffman PM, Pouyat RV, Cadenasso ML, Zipperer WC, Szlavecz K, Yesilonis IC,. Band LE and Brush GS. 2006. Land use context and natural soil controls on plant community composition and soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics in urban and rural forests. Forest Ecology and Management 236:177-192. Groffman, P.M., C.O. Williams, R.V. Pouyat, L.E. Band and I.C. Yesilonis. 2009. Nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide flux in urban forests and grasslands. Journal of Environmental Quality 38:1848-1860. Groffman, P.M. and R.V. Pouyat. 2009. Methane uptake in urban forests and lawns. Environmental Science and Technology 43:5229-5235. DOI: 10.1021/es803720h. Ni, X. and P.M. Groffman. 2018. Declines in methane uptake in forest soils. Proceedings of the National Academies of Science of the United States of America 115:8587-8590. Savva, Y., K. Szlavecz, R. V. Pouyat, P. M. Groffman, and G. Heisler. 2010. Effects of land use and vegetation cover on soil temperature in an urban ecosystem. Soil Science Society of America Journal 74:469-480. Templeton, L., M.L. Cadenasso, J. Sullivan, M. Neel and P.M. Groffman. 2019. Changes in vegetation structure and composition of urban and rural forest patches in Baltimore from 1998 to 2015. Forest Ecology and Management. In press. Waters, E.R., J.L. Morse, N.D. Bettez and P.M. Groffman. 2014. Differential carbon and nitrogen controls of denitrification in riparian zones and streams along an urban to exurban gradient. Journal of Environmental Quality 43:955–963. 
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  3. In the Baltimore urban long-term ecological research (LTER) project, (Baltimore Ecosystem Study, BES) we use the watershed approach to evaluate integrated ecosystem function. The LTER research is centered on the Gwynns Falls watershed, a 17,150 ha catchment that traverses a gradient from the urban core of Baltimore, through older urban residential (1900 - 1950) and suburban (1950- 1980) zones, rapidly suburbanizing areas and a rural/suburban fringe. Our long-term sampling network includes four longitudinal sampling sites along the Gwynns Falls as well as several small (40 - 100 ha) watersheds located within or near to the Gwynns Falls. The longitudinal sites provide data on water and nutrient fluxes in the different land use zones of the watershed (rural/suburban, rapidly suburbanizing, old suburban, urban core) and the small watersheds provide more focused data on specific land use areas (forest, agriculture, rural/suburban, urban). Each of the gaging sites is continuously monitored for discharge and is sampled weekly for chemistry. Additional chemical sampling is carried out in a supplemental set of sites to provide a greater range of land use. Weekly analyses includes nitrate, phosphate, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, chloride and sulfate, turbidity, fecal coliforms, temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH. Cations, dissolved organic carbon and nitrogen and metals are measured on selected samples. Streamflow data for this site are posted at: http://waterdata.usgs.gov/md/nwis/nwisman?site_no=015835701 
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  4. The Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) established a network of long-term permanent biogeochemical study plots in 1998. These plots provide long-term data on vegetation, soil and hydrologic processes in the key ecosystem types within the urban ecosystem. The network of study plots includes forest plots (upland and riparian), chosen to represent the range of forest conditions in the area and grass plots (to represent home lawns). Plots are instrumented with lysimeters (drainage and tension) to sample soil solution chemistry, time domain reflectometry probes to measure soil moisture, dataloggers to measure and record soil temperature, and trace gas flux chambers to measure the flux of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane from soil to the atmosphere. Measurements of in situ nitrogen mineralization, nitrification and denitrification were made at approximately monthly intervals from Fall 1998 - Fall 2000. Detailed vegetation characterization (all layers) was done in summer 1998 and 2015. Data from these plots has been published in Groffman et al. (2006, 2009), Groffman and Pouyat (2009), Savva et al. (2010), Costa and Groffman (2013), Duncan et al. (2013), Waters et al. (2014), Ni and Groffman (2018), Templeton et al. (2019). Literature Cited Costa, K.H. and P.M. Groffman. 2013. Factors regulating net methane flux in urban forests and grasslands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 77:850 - 855. Duncan, J. M., L. E. Band, and P. M. Groffman. 2013. Towards closing the watershed nitrogen budget: Spatial and temporal scaling of denitrification. Journal of Geophysical Research Biogeosciences 118:1-5; DOI: 10.1002/jgrg.20090 Groffman PM, Pouyat RV, Cadenasso ML, Zipperer WC, Szlavecz K, Yesilonis IC,. Band LE and Brush GS. 2006. Land use context and natural soil controls on plant community composition and soil nitrogen and carbon dynamics in urban and rural forests. Forest Ecology and Management 236:177-192. Groffman, P.M., C.O. Williams, R.V. Pouyat, L.E. Band and I.C. Yesilonis. 2009. Nitrate leaching and nitrous oxide flux in urban forests and grasslands. Journal of Environmental Quality 38:1848-1860. Groffman, P.M. and R.V. Pouyat. 2009. Methane uptake in urban forests and lawns. Environmental Science and Technology 43:5229-5235. DOI: 10.1021/es803720h. Ni, X. and P.M. Groffman. 2018. Declines in methane uptake in forest soils. Proceedings of the National Academies of Science of the United States of America 115:8587-8590. Savva, Y., K. Szlavecz, R. V. Pouyat, P. M. Groffman, and G. Heisler. 2010. Effects of land use and vegetation cover on soil temperature in an urban ecosystem. Soil Science Society of America Journal 74:469-480. Templeton, L., M.L. Cadenasso, J. Sullivan, M. Neel and P.M. Groffman. 2019. Changes in vegetation structure and composition of urban and rural forest patches in Baltimore from 1998 to 2015. Forest Ecology and Management. In press. Waters, E.R., J.L. Morse, N.D. Bettez and P.M. Groffman. 2014. Differential carbon and nitrogen controls of denitrification in riparian zones and streams along an urban to exurban gradient. Journal of Environmental Quality 43:955–963. 
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  5. In 1997, as part of a study of the relationships between snow depth, soil freezing and nutrient cycling (http://www.ecostudies.org/people_sci_groffman_snow_summary.html), we established eight 10 x 10-m plots located within four stands; two dominated (80%) by sugar maple and two dominated by yellow birch, with one snow reduction (freeze) and one reference plot in each stand. In 2001, we established eight new 10-m x 10-m plots (4 treatment, 4 reference) in four new sites; two high elevation, north facing and two low elevation, south facing maple-beech-birch stands. To establish plots for the “freeze” study, we cleared minor amounts of understory vegetation from all (both freeze and reference) plots (to facilitate shoveling). We then installed soil solution samplers (zero tension lysimeters), thermistors for soil temperature monitoring, water content (time domain) reflectometers (for measuring soil moisture), soil atmosphere sampling probes, minirhizotron access tubes, and trace gas flux measurement chambers (described below). All plots were equipped with dataloggers to allow for continuous monitoring of soil moisture and temperature. Treatments (keep plots snow free by shoveling through the end of January) were applied in the winters of 1997/98, 1998/99, 2002/2003 and 2003/2004. Measurements of soil nitrate (NO3 -) and ammonium (NH4 +) concentrations, microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, microbial respiration, potential nitrification and N mineralization rates, pH, and denitrification potential were measured on these plots at multiple time points during these studies. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES) using funding from the U.S. National Science Foundation. The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 
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  6. Long-term monitoring of soil nitrate (NO3-) and ammonium (NH4+) concentrations, microbial biomass carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) content, microbial respiration, potential nitrification and N mineralization rates, pH, and denitrification potential has been ongoing at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest since 1994. Samples have been collected in the Bear Brook Watershed (west of Watershed 6) beginning in 1994. In 1998, our sampling regime was extended to Watershed 1 in an effort to monitor and quantify microbial response to a whole-watershed calcium addition. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 
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  7. Soil atmosphere fluxes of the trace gases; carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) have been measured at several locations at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) including 1) the “freeze” study reference plots that provide contrast between stands dominated (80%) by sugar maple versus yellow birch and low and high elevation areas, 2) the Bear Brook Watershed where trace gas sampling is coordinated with long-term monitoring of microbial biomass and activity and 3) watershed 1 where trace gas sampling locations were co-located with long-term microbial biomass and activity monitoring sites that are located near a subset of the lysimeter sites established for the calcium addition study on this watershed. This dataset contains the Freeze study data. Watershed 1 and Bear Brook trace gas data can be found in: https://portal.edirepository.org/nis/mapbrowse?scope=knb-lter-hbr&identifier=116. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station. These data have been published in: Groffman, P. M., Hardy, J. P., Driscoll, C. T., & Fahey, T. J. (2006). Snow depth, soil freezing, and fluxes of carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane in a northern hardwood forest. Global Change Biology, 12, 1748–1760. 
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  8. Soil atmosphere fluxes of the trace gases; carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) have been measured at several locations at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest (HBEF) including 1) the “freeze” study reference plots that provide contrast between stands dominated (80%) by sugar maple versus yellow birch and low and high elevation areas, 2) the Bear Brook Watershed where trace gas sampling is coordinated with long-term monitoring of microbial biomass and activity and 3) watershed 1 where trace gas sampling locations were co-located with long-term microbial biomass and activity monitoring sites that are located near a subset of the lysimeter sites established for the calcium addition study on this watershed. This dataset contains the Watershed 1 and Bear Brook data. Freeze plot trace gas can be found in: https://portal.edirepository.org/nis/mapbrowse?scope=knb-lter-hbr&identifier=251. These data were gathered as part of the Hubbard Brook Ecosystem Study (HBES). The HBES is a collaborative effort at the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest, which is operated and maintained by the USDA Forest Service, Northern Research Station. 
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  9. Denitrification potential and a series of ancillary variables (inorganic nitrogen concentrations, moisture content, organic matter content, microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen content, potential net nitrogen mineralization and nitrification, microbial respiration, root biomass) has been measured in riparian zone soils and stream geomorphic features by a series of undergraduate and graduate student researchers as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study since the early 2000s. These studies often center on the series of sites where there has been long-term monitoring (since 2000) of riparian water tables and groundwater chemistry along four first or second order steams in and around the Gwynns Falls watershed in Baltimore City and County, MD (https://doi.org/10.6073/pasta/f7721ec5a4fab5b031f8056824e07e7d). One site is in the completely forested Pond Branch catchment that serves as a "reference" study area for the Baltimore LTER (BES). Two sites (Glyndon, Gwynbrook) are in suburban areas of the watershed; one just upstream from the Glyndon BES long-term stream monitoring site in the headwaters of the Gwynns Falls, and one along a tributary that enters the Gwynns Falls just above the Gwynnbrook BES long-term stream monitoring site farther downstream. The final, urban site (Cahill) is along a tributary to the Gwynns Falls in Leakin Park in the urban core of the watershed. Other sites were used in different studies as described in the publications associated with each study. The different studies also varied in just which ancillary variables were measured. 
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  10. Long-term monitoring of riparian water tables and groundwater chemistry began in 2000 along four first or second order steams in and around the Gwynns Falls watershed in Baltimore City and County, MD. One site (Oregon Ridge) is in the completely forested Pond Branch catchment that serves as a ""reference"" study area for the Baltimore LTER (BES). Two sites (Glyndon, Gwynbrook) were in suburban areas of the watershed; one just upstream from the Glyndon BES long-term stream monitoring site in the headwaters of the Gwynns Falls, and one along a tributary that enters the Gwynns Falls just above the Gwynnbrook BES long-term stream monitoring site farther downstream. The final, urban site (Cahill) was along a tributary to the Gwynns Falls in Leakin Park in the urban core of the watershed. Water table data and more detailed descriptions of soils, vegetation, stream channel properties and microbial processes at these sites can be found in Groffman et al. (2002, Environmental Science and Technology 36:4547-4552) and Gift et al. (2010, Restoration Ecology 18:113-120). 
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