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  1. Multi-antenna (MIMO) processing is a promising solution to the problem of jammer mitigation. Existing methods mitigate the jammer based on an estimate of its subspace (or receive statistics) acquired through a dedicated training phase. This strategy has two main drawbacks: (i) it reduces the communication rate since no data can be transmitted during the training phase and (ii) it can be evaded by smart or multi-antenna jammers that are quiet during the training phase or that dynamically change their subspace through time-varying beamforming. To address these drawbacks, we propose joint jammer mitigation and data detection (JMD), a novel paradigm for MIMO jammer mitigation. The core idea is to estimate and remove the jammer interference subspace jointly with detecting the transmit data over multiple time slots. Doing so removes the need for a dedicated rate-reducing training period while enabling the mitigation of smart and dynamic multi-antenna jammers. We instantiate our paradigm with SANDMAN, a simple and practical algorithm for multi-user MIMO uplink JMD. Extensive simulations demonstrate the efficacy of JMD, and of SANDMAN in particular, for jammer mitigation. 
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  2. Wireless systems must be resilient to jamming attacks. Existing mitigation methods based on multi-antenna processing require knowledge of the jammer's transmit characteristics that may be difficult to acquire, especially for smart jammers that evade mitigation by transmitting only at specific instants. We propose a novel method to mitigate smart jamming attacks on the massive multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) uplink which does not require the jammer to be active at any specific instant. By formulating an optimization problem that unifies jammer estimation and mitigation, channel estimation, and data detection, we exploit that a jammer cannot change its subspace within a coherence interval. Theoretical results for our problem formulation show that its solution is guaranteed to recover the users' data symbols under certain conditions. We develop two efficient iterative algorithms for approximately solving the proposed problem formulation: MAED, a parameter-free algorithm which uses forward-backward splitting with a box symbol prior, and SO-MAED, which replaces the prior of MAED with soft-output symbol estimates that exploit the discrete transmit constellation and which uses deep unfolding to optimize algorithm parameters. We use simulations to demonstrate that the proposed algorithms effectively mitigate a wide range of smart jammers without a priori knowledge about the attack type. 
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  3. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) cell-free massive multiuser (MU) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems combine the large bandwidths available at mmWave frequencies with the improved coverage of cell-free systems. However, to combat the high path loss at mmWave frequencies, user equipments (UEs) must form beams in meaningful directions, i.e., to a nearby access point (AP). At the same time, multiple UEs should avoid transmitting to the same AP to reduce MU interference. We propose an interference-aware method for beam alignment (BA) in the cell-free mmWave massive MU-MIMO uplink. In the considered scenario, the APs perform full digital receive beamforming while the UEs perform analog transmit beamforming. We evaluate our method using realistic mmWave channels from a commercial ray-tracer, showing the superiority of the proposed method over omnidirectional transmission as well as over methods that do not take MU interference into account. 
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  4. Wireless systems must be resilient to jamming attacks. Existing mitigation methods require knowledge of the jammer’s transmit characteristics. However, this knowledge may be difficult to acquire, especially for smart jammers that attack only specific instants during transmission in order to evade mitigation. We propose a novel method that mitigates attacks by smart jammers on massive multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) basestations (BSs). Our approach builds on recent progress in joint channel estimation and data detection (JED) and exploits the fact that a jammer cannot change its subspace within a coherence interval. Our method, called MAED (short for MitigAtion, Estimation, and Detection), uses a novel problem formulation that combines jammer estimation and mitigation, channel estimation, and data detection, instead of separating these tasks. We solve the problem approximately with an efficient iterative algorithm. Our simulation results show that MAED effectively mitigates a wide range of smart jamming attacks without having any a priori knowledge about the attack type. 
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  5. Millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) technology promises unprecedentedly high data rates for next-generation wireless systems. To be practically viable, mmWave massive MU-MIMO basestations (BS) must (i) rely on low-resolution data-conversion and (ii) be robust to jammer interference. This paper considers the problem of mitigating the impact of a permanently transmitting jammer during uplink transmission to a BS equipped with low-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs). To this end, we propose SNIPS, short for Soft-Nulling of Interferers with Partitions in Space. SNIPS combines beam-slicing—a localized, analog spatial transform that focuses the jammer energy onto a subset of all ADCs—together with a soft-nulling data detector that exploits knowledge of which ADCs are contaminated by jammer interference. Our numerical results show that SNIPS is able to successfully serve 65% of the user equipments (UEs) for scenarios in which a conventional antenna-domain soft-nulling data detector is only able to serve 2% of the UEs. 
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  6. Low-resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) simplify the design of millimeter-wave (mmWave) massive multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) basestations, but increase vulnerability to jamming attacks. As a remedy, we propose HERMIT (short for Hybrid jammER MITigation), a method that combines a hardware-friendly adaptive analog transform with a corresponding digital equalizer: The analog transform removes most of the jammer’s energy prior to data conversion; the digital equalizer suppresses jammer residues while detecting the legitimate transmit data. We provide theoretical results that establish the optimal analog transform as a function of the user equipments’ and the jammer’s channels. Using simulations with mmWave channel models, we demonstrate the superiority of HERMIT compared both to purely digital jammer mitigation as well as to a recent hybrid method that mitigates jammer interference with a nonadaptive analog transform. 
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