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  1. There are several changes anticipated in computer science (CS) education over the next decade, including updated student standards, rapidly changing impacts of artificial intelligence (AI), and an increasing number of school systems requiring a CS class for graduation. In order to prepare for these changes – as well as to address the equity issues that have plagued CS since its inception – we engaged in a project designed to reimagine content and pathways for high school CS education. As a collaborative project, we hosted multiple events for relevant parties (including K-12 educators and administrators, higher education faculty, industry professionals, state and district CS supervisors, and CS education researchers). These events were designed to collaboratively seek input for the creation of a series of reports recommending what a CS course that satisfies a high school graduation requirement should include, how that course should align with Advanced Placement (AP) and post-secondary CS instruction, and what pathways should exist for students after that introductory high school course. The portion of the project highlighted in this article contains an analysis of data collected from focus groups (n=21), interviews (n=10), and an in-person convening of participants from K-12, post-secondary, industry, and administrative roles (n=35). The data is centered on determining what CS content is essential for all high school students. Participants considered knowledge, skills, and dispositions across a range of CS and CS-adjacent topics and, through a variety of activities, described what new content should be taught when viewing through the lens of teaching CS to high school students in the year 2030 and what content should be prioritized. Our analysis sought to delineate and synthesize their sentiments. Six major priorities emerged from our analysis: societal impacts and ethical issues, algorithmic thinking, data and analysis, inclusive computing culture, AI, and career knowledge. The significance of our findings is that they present a broad overview of what a variety of relevant parties consider to be the most important CS content for high school students; this information is important for educators, administrators, and those who develop curriculum, standards, and/or teaching tools. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 23, 2025
  2. Interim Report #2 summarizes progress to date in the second phase of the Reimagining CS Pathways: High School and Beyond project. Its focus is collectively defining pathways for continued CS learning beyond a foundational high school CS course. It includes content progressions and course implementation pathways for seven concentration areas, including artificial intelligence, cybersecurity, and data science. Primary inputs were data collected at the second in-person convening held in Atlanta, GA in January 2024, in a series of virtual focus groups, and through a literature review and additional research. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 16, 2025
  3. Traditionally, computer science (CS) in the United States has been an elective subject at the high school level. In recent years, however, some school systems have created a CS graduation requirement. Designing a required CS course that meets the needs of anticipated future advancements in the field necessitates exploring the research question, To better understand what these different groups perceive to be the essential content of a foundational high school CS course, we conducted a series of focus groups. These focus groups explored participants' (n = 21) thinking about what content would be most important to prioritize in a required high school CS course. Transcripts of the focus groups were abductively coded and then analyzed to determine what CS content priorities were identified and what disagreements about priorities exist. We found that participants (1) emphasized CS knowledge and skills, with minimal reference to dispositions, (2) prioritized content similar to that found in current CS standards, (3) developed broad, high-level descriptions of content, (4) identified contextually relevant factors, (5) foregrounded AI both a tool and as a subdomain of CS, and (6) emphasized computational thinking. These findings can inform further research on the design and implementation of a required high school CS course designed to meet the needs of the future as well as to support revisions of CS standards for high school students. 
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  4. Interim Report #1 summarizes progress to date in the first phase of the Reimagining CS Pathways: High School and Beyond project. Its focus is collectively defining what CS content is essential for all high school students. Primary inputs were data collected at the first in-person convening held in Chicago, IL in November 2023, in a series of virtual focus groups, and through a literature review and additional research. 
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 31, 2025
  5. Research Problem. Computer science (CS) education researchers conducting studies that target high school students have likely seen their studies impacted by COVID-19. Interpreting research findings impacted by COVID-19 presents unique challenges that will require a deeper understanding as to how the pandemic has affected underserved and underrepresented students studying or unable to study computing. Research Question. Our research question for this study was: In what ways has the high school computer science educational ecosystem for students been impacted by COVID-19, particularly when comparing schools based on relative socioeconomic status of a majority of students? Methodology. We used an exploratory sequential mixed methods study to understand the types of impacts high school CS educators have seen in their practice over the past year using the CAPE theoretical dissaggregation framework to measure schools’ Capacity to offer CS, student Access to CS education, student Participation in CS, and Experiences of students taking CS. Data Collection Procedure. We developed an instrument to collect qualitative data from open-ended questions, then collected data from CS high school educators (n = 21) and coded them across CAPE. We used the codes to create a quantitative instrument. We collected data from a wider set of CS high school educators ( n = 185), analyzed the data, and considered how these findings shape research conducted over the last year. Findings. Overall, practitioner perspectives revealed that capacity for CS Funding, Policy & Curriculum in both types of schools grew during the pandemic, while the capacity to offer physical and human resources decreased. While access to extracurricular activities decreased, there was still a significant increase in the number of CS courses offered. Fewer girls took CS courses and attendance decreased. Student learning and engagement in CS courses were significantly impacted, while other noncognitive factors like interest in CS and relevance of technology saw increases. Practitioner perspectives also indicated that schools serving students from lower-income families had 1) a greater decrease in the number of students who received information about CS/CTE pathways; 2) a greater decrease in the number of girls enrolled in CS classes; 3) a greater decrease in the number of students receiving college credit for dual-credit CS courses; 4) a greater decrease in student attendance; and 5) a greater decrease in the number of students interested in taking additional CS courses. On the flip-side, schools serving students from higher income families had significantly higher increases in the number of students interested in taking additional CS courses. 
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  8. Until recently, computer science (CS) has been predominantly taught at upper-secondary or tertiary levels. Lately, however, CS curricula have been introduced into school systems from the very first year of school. In this paper, we undertake a participatory research approach, using focus group discussions between a group of experts in the field of evaluation and assessment at the primary level (K-5). The group considered the evaluation and assessment measures they have used, what their current needs are and how the CS education community can move towards meeting those needs. We present the discussion results as a position paper, situated in the context of broader education research. The experts identified three key priorities for the education research community: creating a universal taxonomy of assessment in the primary grades (K-5), creating measurements of student progression and growth over time, and creating culturally relevant evaluations and assessments. Through identifying key priorities, this work provides direction for urgently needed resource development and research directions for K-5 evaluation and assessment. 
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