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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 16, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 16, 2023
  3. A bstract We review and examine in detail recent developments regarding the question of the nucleon mass decomposition. We discuss in particular the virial theorem in quantum field theory and its implications for the nucleon mass decomposition and mechanical equilibrium. We reconsider the renormalization of the QCD energy-momentum tensor in minimal-subtraction-type schemes and the physical interpretation of its components, as well as the role played by the trace anomaly and Poincaré symmetry. We also study the concept of “quantum anomalous energy” proposed in some works as a new contribution to the nucleon mass. Examining the various arguments, we conclude that the quantum anomalous energy is not a genuine contribution to the mass sum rule, as a consequence of translation symmetry.