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  1. Collembola, commonly known as springtails, are important detritivores, abundant in leaf litter and soil globally. Springtails are wingless hexapods with many North American species having wide distributions ranging from as far as Alaska to Mexico. Here, we analyze the occurrence and intraspecific diversity of springtails with a globular body shape (Symphypleona and Neelipleona), in southern high Appalachia, a significant biodiversity hotspot. The peaks of high Appalachia represent ‘sky islands’ due to their physical isolation, and they host numerous endemic species in other taxa. We surveyed globular Collembola through COI metabarcoding, assessing geographic and genetic diversity across localities and species. Intraspecific diversity in globular Collembola was extremely high, suggesting that considerable cryptic speciation has occurred. While we were able to associate morphospecies with described species in most of the major families in the region (Dicyrtomidae, Katiannidae, Sminthuridae, and Sminthurididae), other families (Neelidae, and Arrhopalitidae) are in more pressing need of taxonomic revision before species identities can be confirmed. Due to poor representation in databases, and high intraspecific variability, no identifications were accomplished through comparison with available DNA barcodes.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2023
  2. Abstract

    Each year, more than 40,000 people undergo mitral valve (MV) repair surgery domestically to treat regurgitation caused by myocardial infarction (MI). Although continual MV tissue remodelling following repair is believed to be a major contributor to regurgitation recurrence, the effects of the post-MI state on MV remodelling remain poorly understood. This lack of understanding limits our ability to predict the remodelling of the MV both post-MI and post-surgery to facilitate surgical planning. As a necessary first step, the present study was undertaken to noninvasively quantify the effects of MI on MV remodelling in terms of leaflet geometry and deformation. MI was induced in eight adult Dorset sheep, and real-time three-dimensional echocardiographic (rt-3DE) scans were collected pre-MI as well as at 0, 4, and 8 weeks post-MI. A previously validated image-based morphing pipeline was used to register corresponding open- and closed-state scans and extract local in-plane strains throughout the leaflet surface at systole. We determined that MI inducedpermanentchanges in leaflet dimensions in the diastolic configuration, which increased with time to 4 weeks, then stabilised. MI substantially affected the systolicshapeof the MV, and therange of stretchexperienced by the MV leaflet at peak systole was substantially reduced when referred to the current time-point.more »Interestingly, when we referred the leaflet strains to the pre-MI configuration, the systolic strains remained very similar throughout the post-MI period. Overall, we observed that post-MI ventricular remodeling induced permanent changes in the MV leaflet shape. This predominantly affected the MV’s diastolic configuration, leading in turn to a significant decrease in the range of stretch experienced by the leaflet when referenced to the current diastolic configuration. These findings are consistent with our previous work that demonstrated increased plastic (i.e. non-recoverable) leaflet deformations post-MI, that was completely accounted for by the associated changes in collagen fiber structure. Moreover, we demonstrated through noninvasive methods that the state of the MV leaflet can elucidate the progression and extent of MV adaptation following MI and is thus highly relevant to the design of current and novel patient specific minimally invasive surgical repair strategies.

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  3. Remote epitaxy is promising for the synthesis of lattice-mismatched materials, exfoliation of membranes, and reuse of expensive substrates. However, clear experimental evidence of a remote mechanism remains elusive. Alternative mechanisms such as pinhole-seeded epitaxy or van der Waals epitaxy can often explain the resulting films. Here, we show that growth of the Heusler compound GdPtSb on clean graphene/sapphire produces a 30° rotated (R30) superstructure that cannot be explained by pinhole epitaxy. With decreasing temperature, the fraction of this R30 domain increases, compared to the direct epitaxial R0 domain, which can be explained by a competition between remote versus pinhole epitaxy. Careful graphene/substrate annealing and consideration of the relative lattice mismatches are required to obtain epitaxy to the underlying substrate across a series of other Heusler films, including LaPtSb and GdAuGe. The R30 superstructure provides a possible experimental fingerprint of remote epitaxy, since it is inconsistent with the leading alternative mechanisms.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 7, 2023
  4. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 22, 2023
  5. Abstract

    A striking feature of the Earth system is that the Northern and Southern Hemispheres reflect identical amounts of sunlight. This hemispheric albedo symmetry comprises two asymmetries: The Northern Hemisphere is more reflective in clear skies, whereas the Southern Hemisphere is cloudier. Here we show that the hemispheric reflection contrast from differences in continental coverage is offset by greater reflection from the Antarctic than the Arctic, allowing the net clear-sky asymmetry to be dominated by aerosol. Climate model simulations suggest that historical anthropogenic aerosol emissions drove a large increase in the clear-sky asymmetry that would reverse in future low-emission scenarios. High-emission scenarios also show decreasing asymmetry, instead driven by declines in Northern Hemisphere ice and snow cover. Strong clear-sky hemispheric albedo asymmetry is therefore a transient feature of Earth’s climate. If all-sky symmetry is maintained, compensating cloud changes would have uncertain but important implications for Earth’s energy balance and hydrological cycle.

  6. We examine if the bundling of semiconducting carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can increase the transconductance and on-state current density of field effect transistors (FETs) made from arrays of aligned, polymer-wrapped CNTs. Arrays with packing density ranging from 20 to 50 bundles  μm −1 are created via tangential flow interfacial self-assembly, and the transconductance and saturated on-state current density of FETs with either (i) strong ionic gel gates or (ii) weak 15 nm SiO 2 back gates are measured vs the degree of bundling. Both transconductance and on-state current significantly increase as median bundle height increases from 2 to 4 nm, but only when the strongly coupled ionic gel gate is used. Such devices tested at −0.6 V drain voltage achieve transconductance as high as 50 μS per bundle and 2 mS  μm −1 and on-state current as high as 1.7 mA  μm −1 . At low drain voltages, the off-current also increases with bundling, but on/off ratios of ∼10 5 are still possible if the largest (95th percentile) bundles in an array are limited to ∼5 nm in size. Radio frequency devices with strong, wraparound dielectric gates may benefit from increased device performance by using moderately bundled as opposed to individualized CNTs in arrays.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 15, 2023
  7. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of seismic waveforms sensitive to the core–mantle boundary (CMB) region reveal the presence of ultralow-velocity zones (ULVZs) that have a strong decrease in compressional (P) and shear (S) wave velocity, and an increase in density within thin structures. However, understanding their physical origin and relation to the other large-scale structures in the lowermost mantle are limited due to an incomplete mapping of ULVZs at the CMB. The SKS and SPdKS seismic waveforms is routinely used to infer ULVZ presence, but has thus far only been used in a limited epicentral distance range. As the SKS/SPdKS wavefield interacts with a ULVZ it generates additional seismic arrivals, thus increasing the complexity of the recorded wavefield. Here, we explore utilization of the multi-scale sample entropy method to search for ULVZ structures. We investigate the feasibility of this approach through analysis of synthetic seismograms computed for PREM, 1-, 2.5-, and 3-D ULVZs as well as heterogeneous structures with a strong increase in velocity in the lowermost mantle in 1- and 2.5-D. We find that the sample entropy technique may be useful across a wide range of epicentral distances from 100° to 130°. Such an analysis, when applied to real waveforms,more »could provide coverage of roughly 85% by surface area of the CMB.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 1, 2023
  8. Free, publicly-accessible full text available September 1, 2023
  9. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023
  10. Free, publicly-accessible full text available June 1, 2023