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  1. The influence of various energetic particles and electron injection on the transport of minority carriers and non-equilibrium carrier recombination in Ga2O3 is summarized in this review. In Ga2O3 semiconductors, if robust p-type material and bipolar structures become available, the diffusion lengths of minority carriers will be of critical significance. The diffusion length of minority carriers dictates the functionality of electronic devices such as diodes, transistors, and detectors. One of the problems in ultrawide-bandgap materials technology is the short carrier diffusion length caused by the scattering on extended defects. Electron injection in n- and p-type gallium oxide results in a significant increase in the diffusion length, even after its deterioration, due to exposure to alpha and proton irradiation. Furthermore, post electron injection, the diffusion length of an irradiated material exceeds that of Ga2O3 prior to irradiation and injection. The root cause of the electron injection-induced effect is attributed to the increase in the minority carrier lifetime in the material due to the trapping of non-equilibrium electrons on native point defects. It is therefore concluded that electron injection is capable of “healing” the adverse impact of radiation in Ga2O3 and can be used for the control of minority carrier transport and, therefore, device performance.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available March 1, 2025
  2. Forward bias hole injection from 10-nm-thick p-type nickel oxide layers into 10-μm-thick n-type gallium oxide in a vertical NiO/Ga2O3 p–n heterojunction leads to enhancement of photoresponse of more than a factor of 2 when measured from this junction. While it takes only 600 s to obtain such a pronounced increase in photoresponse, it persists for hours, indicating the feasibility of photovoltaic device performance control. The effect is ascribed to a charge injection-induced increase in minority carrier (hole) diffusion length (resulting in improved collection of photogenerated non-equilibrium carriers) in n-type β-Ga2O3 epitaxial layers due to trapping of injected charge (holes) on deep meta-stable levels in the material and the subsequent blocking of non-equilibrium carrier recombination through these levels. Suppressed recombination leads to increased non-equilibrium carrier lifetime, in turn determining a longer diffusion length and being the root-cause of the effect of charge injection.

     
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    Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  3. Halide vapor phase epitaxial (HVPE) Ga2O3 films were grown on c-plane sapphire and diamond substrates at temperatures up to 550 °C without the use of a barrier dielectric layer to protect the diamond surface. Corundum phase α-Ga2O3 was grown on the sapphire substrates, whereas the growth on diamond resulted in regions of nanocrystalline β-Ga2O3 (nc-β-Ga2O3) when oxygen was present in the HVPE reactor only during film growth. X-ray diffraction confirmed the growth of α-Ga2O3 on sapphire but failed to detect any β-Ga2O3 reflections from the films grown on diamond. These films were further characterized via Raman spectroscopy, which revealed the β-Ga2O3 phase of these films. Transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the nanocrystalline character of these films. From cathodoluminescence spectra, three emission bands, UVL′, UVL, and BL, were observed for both the α-Ga2O3/sapphire and nc-Ga2O3/diamond, and these bands were centered at approximately 3.7, 3.2, and 2.7 eV.

     
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  4. We present a review of the published experimental and simulation radiation damage results in Ga 2 O 3 . All of the polytypes of Ga 2 O 3 are expected to show similar radiation resistance as GaN and SiC, considering their average bond strengths. However, this is not enough to explain the orders of magnitude difference of the relative resistance to radiation damage of these materials compared to GaAs and dynamic annealing of defects is much more effective in Ga 2 O 3 . It is important to examine the effect of all types of radiation, given that Ga 2 O 3 devices will potentially be deployed both in space and terrestrial applications. Octahedral gallium monovacancies are the main defects produced under most radiation conditions because of the larger cross-section for interaction compared to oxygen vacancies. Proton irradiation introduces two main paramagnetic defects in Ga 2 O 3 , which are stable at room temperature. Charge carrier removal can be explained by Fermi-level pinning far from the conduction band minimum due to gallium interstitials (Ga i ), vacancies (V Ga ), and antisites (Ga O ). One of the most important parameters to establish is the carrier removal rate for each type of radiation, since this directly impacts the current in devices such as transistors or rectifiers. When compared to the displacement damage predicted by the Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter(SRIM) code, the carrier removal rates are generally much lower and take into account the electrical nature of the defects created. With few experimental or simulation studies on single event effects (SEE) in Ga 2 O 3 , it is apparent that while other wide bandgap semiconductors like SiC and GaN are robust against displacement damage and total ionizing dose, they display significant vulnerability to single event effects at high Linear Energy Transfer (LET) and at much lower biases than expected. We have analyzed the transient response of β -Ga 2 O 3 rectifiers to heavy-ion strikes via TCAD simulations. Using field metal rings improves the breakdown voltage and biasing those rings can help control the breakdown voltage. Such biased rings help in the removal of the charge deposited by the ion strike. 
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  5. Electron beam-induced current in the temperature range from 304 to 404 K was employed to measure the minority carrier diffusion length in metal–organic chemical vapor deposition-grown p-Ga 2 O 3 thin films with two different concentrations of majority carriers. The diffusion length of electrons exhibited a decrease with increasing temperature. In addition, the cathodoluminescence emission spectrum identified optical signatures of the acceptor levels associated with the V Ga − –V O ++ complex. The activation energies for the diffusion length decrease and quenching of cathodoluminescence emission with increasing temperature were ascribed to the thermal de-trapping of electrons from V Ga − –V O ++ defect complexes. 
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  6. We report the effect of extended duration electron beam exposure on the minority carrier transport properties of 10 MeV proton irradiated (fluence ∼1014cm−2) Si-dopedβ-Ga2O3Schottky rectifiers. The diffusion length (L) of minority carriers is found to decrease with temperature from 330 nm at 21 °C to 289 nm at 120 °C, with an activation energy of ∼26 meV. This energy corresponds to the presence of shallow Si trap-levels. Extended duration electron beam exposure enhancesLfrom 330 nm to 726 nm at room temperature. The rate of increase forLis lower with increased temperature, with an activation energy of 43 meV. Finally, a brief comparison of the effect of electron injection on proton irradiated, alpha-particle irradiated and a reference Si-dopedβ-Ga2O3Schottky rectifiers is presented.

     
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  7. Abstract

    Functional surfaces that can control light across the electromagnetic spectrum are highly desirable. Plasmonic nanostructures can assume this role by exhibiting dimension-tunable resonances that span multiple electromagnetic regimes. However, changing these structural parameters often impacts the higher-order resonances and spectral features in lower-wavelength domains. In this study, we discuss a cavity-coupled plasmonic system with resonances that are tunable across the 3–5 or 8–14 μm infrared bands while retaining near-invariant spectral properties in the visible domain. This result is accomplished by regime-dependent resonance mechanisms and their dependence on independent structural parameters. Through the identification and constraint of key parameters, we demonstrate multispectral data encoding, where images, viewable in the infrared spectral domain, appear as uniform areas of color in the visible domain—effectively hiding the information. Fabricated by large area nanoimprint lithography and compatible with flexible surfaces, the proposed system can produce multifunctional coatings for thermal management, camouflage, and anti-counterfeiting.

     
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