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  1. Simon, Anne E. (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT Positive-strand RNA viruses build large viral replication organelles (VROs) with the help of coopted host factors. Previous works on tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) showed that the p33 replication protein subverts the actin cytoskeleton by sequestering the actin depolymerization factor, cofilin, to reduce actin filament disassembly and stabilize the actin filaments. Then, TBSV utilizes the stable actin filaments as “trafficking highways” to deliver proviral host factors into the protective VROs. In this work, we show that the cellular intrinsic restriction factors (CIRFs) also use the actin network to reach VROs and inhibit viral replication. Disruption of the actin filaments by expression of the Legionella RavK protease inhibited the recruitment of plant CIRFs, including the CypA-like Roc1 and Roc2 cyclophilins, and the antiviral DDX17-like RH30 DEAD box helicase into VROs. Conversely, temperature-sensitive actin and cofilin mutant yeasts with stabilized actin filaments reduced the levels of copurified CIRFs, including cyclophilins Cpr1, CypA, Cyp40-like Cpr7, cochaperones Sgt2, the Hop-like Sti1, and the RH30 helicase in viral replicase preparations. Dependence of the recruitment of both proviral and antiviral host factors into VROs on the actin network suggests that there is a race going on between TBSV and its host to exploit the actin network and ultimately to gain the upper hand during infection. We propose that, in the highly susceptible plants, tombusviruses efficiently subvert the actin network for rapid delivery of proviral host factors into VROs and ultimately overcome host restriction factors via winning the recruitment race and overwhelming cellular defenses. IMPORTANCE Replication of positive-strand RNA viruses is affected by the recruitment of host components, which provide either proviral or antiviral functions during virus invasion of infected cells. The delivery of these host factors into the viral replication organelles (VROs), which represent the sites of viral RNA replication, depends on the cellular actin network. Using TBSV, we uncover a race between the virus and its host with the actin network as the central player. We find that in susceptible plants, tombusviruses exploit the actin network for rapid delivery of proviral host factors into VROs and ultimately overcome host restriction factors. In summary, this work demonstrates that the actin network plays a major role in determining the outcome of viral infections in plants. 
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  2. Wang, Aiming (Ed.)
    Positive-strand (+)RNA viruses take advantage of the host cells by subverting a long list of host protein factors and transport vesicles and cellular organelles to build membranous viral replication organelles (VROs) that support robust RNA replication. How RNA viruses accomplish major recruitment tasks of a large number of cellular proteins are intensively studied. In case of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a single viral replication protein, named p33, carries out most of the recruitment duties. Yet, it is currently unknown how the viral p33 replication protein, which is membrane associated, is capable of the rapid and efficient recruitment of numerous cytosolic host proteins to facilitate the formation of large VROs. In this paper, we show that, TBSV p33 molecules do not recruit each cytosolic host factor one-by-one into VROs, but p33 targets a cytosolic protein interaction hub, namely Rpn11, which interacts with numerous other cytosolic proteins. The highly conserved Rpn11, called POH1 in humans, is the metalloprotease subunit of the proteasome, which couples deubiquitination and degradation of proteasome substrates. However, TBSV takes advantage of a noncanonical function of Rpn11 by exploiting Rpn11’s interaction with highly abundant cytosolic proteins and the actin network. We provide supporting evidence that the co-opted Rpn11 in coordination with the subverted actin network is used for delivering cytosolic proteins, such as glycolytic and fermentation enzymes, which are readily subverted into VROs to produce ATP locally in support of VRO formation, viral replicase complex assembly and viral RNA replication. Using several approaches, including knockdown of Rpn11 level, sequestering Rpn11 from the cytosol into the nucleus in plants or temperature-sensitive mutation in Rpn11 in yeast, we show the inhibition of recruitment of glycolytic and fermentation enzymes into VROs. The Rpn11-assisted recruitment of the cytosolic enzymes by p33, however, also requires the combined and coordinated role of the subverted actin network. Accordingly, stabilization of the actin filaments by expression of the Legionella VipA effector in yeast and plant, or via a mutation of ACT1 in yeast resulted in more efficient and rapid recruitment of Rpn11 and the selected glycolytic and fermentation enzymes into VROs. On the contrary, destruction of the actin filaments via expression of the Legionella RavK effector led to poor recruitment of Rpn11 and glycolytic and fermentation enzymes. Finally, we confirmed the key roles of Rpn11 and the actin filaments in situ ATP production within TBSV VROs via using a FRET-based ATP-biosensor. The novel emerging theme is that TBSV targets Rpn11 cytosolic protein interaction hub driven by the p33 replication protein and aided by the subverted actin filaments to deliver several co-opted cytosolic pro-viral factors for robust replication within VROs. 
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