skip to main content

Search for: All records

Creators/Authors contains: "Morgan, Jonathan"

Note: When clicking on a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number, you will be taken to an external site maintained by the publisher. Some full text articles may not yet be available without a charge during the embargo (administrative interval).
What is a DOI Number?

Some links on this page may take you to non-federal websites. Their policies may differ from this site.

  1. Lavrik, Inna (Ed.)

    T cells form transient cell-to-cell contacts with antigen presenting cells (APCs) to facilitate surface interrogation by membrane bound T cell receptors (TCRs). Upon recognition of molecular signatures (antigen) of pathogen, T cells may initiate an adaptive immune response. The duration of the T cell/APC contact is observed to vary widely, yet it is unclear what constructive role, if any, such variations might play in immune signaling. Modeling efforts describing antigen discrimination often focus on steady-state approximations and do not account for the transient nature of cellular contacts. Within the framework of a kinetic proofreading (KP) mechanism, we develop a stochasticFirst Receptor Activation Model(FRAM) describing the likelihood that a productive immune signal is produced before the expiry of the contact. Through the use of extreme statistics, we characterize the probability that the first TCR triggering is induced by a rare agonist antigen and not by that of an abundant self-antigen. We show that defining positive immune outcomes as resilience to extreme statistics and sensitivity to rare events mitigates classic tradeoffs associated with KP. By choosing a sufficient number of KP steps, our model is able to yield single agonist sensitivity whilst remaining non-reactive to large populations of self antigen, even when self and agonist antigen are similar in dissociation rate to the TCR but differ largely in expression. Additionally, our model achieves high levels of accuracy even when agonist positive APCs encounters are rare. Finally, we discuss potential biological costs associated with high classification accuracy, particularly in challenging T cell environments.

    more » « less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 30, 2024
  2. null ; null (Ed.)
    We review Affect Control Theory (ACT), a mathematically formalized theory that integrates sociological insights about the symbolic construction of the social order with psychological knowledge about cognitive-affective mechanisms, as a basis for equipping computational agents in social simulations with a sense of sociality. After explaining theoretical foundations and describing previous applications of ACT at the dyadic and group level, we describe a case study from an ongoing research project aimed at understanding self-organized online collaboration in software development with ACT-based social simulations. 
    more » « less
  3. null (Ed.)
    Social biases are encoded in word embeddings. This presents a unique opportunity to study society historically and at scale, and a unique danger when embeddings are used in downstream applications. Here, we investigate the extent to which publicly-available word embeddings accurately reflect beliefs about certain kinds of people as measured via traditional survey methods. We find that biases found in word embeddings do, on average, closely mirror survey data across seventeen dimensions of social meaning. However, we also find that biases in embeddings are much more reflective of survey data for some dimensions of meaning (e.g. gender) than others (e.g. race), and that we can be highly confident that embedding-based measures reflect survey data only for the most salient biases. 
    more » « less
  4. The computational modeling of groups requires models that connect micro-level with macro-level processes and outcomes. Recent research in computational social science has started from simple models of human behavior, and attempted to link to social structures. However, these models make simplifying assumptions about human understanding of culture that are often not realistic and may be limiting in their generality. In this paper, we present work on Bayesian affect control theory as a more comprehensive, yet highly parsimonious model that integrates artificial intelligence, social psychology, and emotions into a single predictive model of human activities in groups. We illustrate these developments with examples from an ongoing research project aimed at computational analysis of virtual software development teams. 
    more » « less
  5. Integrating new users into a community with complex norms presents a challenge for peer production projects like Wikipedia. We present The Wikipedia Adventure (TWA): an interactive tutorial that offers a structured and gamified introduction to Wikipedia. In addition to describing the design of the system, we present two empirical evaluations. First, we report on a survey of users, who responded very positively to the tutorial. Second, we report results from a large-scale invitation-based field experiment that tests whether using TWA increased newcomers' subsequent contributions to Wikipedia. We find no effect of either using the tutorial or of being invited to do so over a period of 180 days. We conclude that TWA produces a positive socialization experience for those who choose to use it, but that it does not alter patterns of newcomer activity. We reflect on the implications of these mixed results for the evaluation of similar social computing systems. 
    more » « less