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  1. Many coastal foundation plant species thrive across a range of environmental conditions, often displaying dramatic phenotypic variation in response to environmental variation. We characterized the response of propagules from six populations of the foundation species Rhizophora mangle L. to full factorial combinations of two levels of salinity (15 ppt and 45 ppt) reflecting the range of salinity measured in the field populations, and two levels of nitrogen (N; no addition and amended at approximately 3 mg N per pot each week) equivalent to comparing ambient N to a rate of addition of 75 kg per hectare per year. The response to increasing salinity included significant changes, i.e., phenotypic plasticity, in succulence and root to shoot biomass allocation. Propagules also showed plasticity in maximum photosynthetic rate and root to shoot allocation in response to N amendment, but the responses depended on the level of salinity and varied by population of origin. In addition, propagules from different populations and maternal families within populations differed in survival and all traits measured except photosynthesis. Variation in phenotypes, phenotypic plasticity and propagule survival within and among R. mangle populations may contribute to adaptation to a complex mosaic of environmental conditions and response to climate change.
  2. Abstract
    <p>This record contains supplementary information for the article &#34;Inheritance of DNA methylation differences in the mangrove Rhizophora mangle&#34; published in Evolution&amp;Development. It contains the barcodes (barcodes.txt), the reference contigs (contigs.fasta.gz), the annotation of the reference contigs (mergedAnnot.csv.gz), the SNPs (snps.vcf.gz), the methylation data (methylation.txt.gz), and the experimental design (design.txt). All data are unfiltered. Short reads are available on SRA (PRJNA746695). Note that demultiplexing of the pooled reads (SRX11452376) will fail because the barcodes are already removed and the header information is lost during SRA submission. Instead, use the pre-demultiplexed reads that are as well linked to PRJNA746695.</p> <p><br />  </p> <p><strong>Table S13 (TableS13_DSSwithGeneAnnotation.offspringFams.csv.gz): </strong></p> <p>Differential cytosine methylation between families using the mother data set. The first three columns fragment number (&#34;chr&#34;), the position within the fragment (&#34;pos&#34;), and the sequence context (&#34;context&#34;). Columns with the pattern FDR_&lt;X&gt;_vs_&lt;Y&gt; contain false discovery rates of a test comparing population X with population Y. Average DNA methylation levels for each population are given in the columns &#34;AC&#34;, &#34;FD&#34;, &#34;HI&#34;, &#34;UTB&#34;, &#34;WB&#34;, and &#34;WI&#34;. The remaining columns contain the annotation of the fragment, for example whether it matches to a gene and if yes, the gene name ID and description are provided.</p>
  3. ABSTRACT Autotrophic microorganisms catalyze the entry of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC; = CO2 + HCO3− + CO32−) into the biological component of the global carbon cycle, despite dramatic differences in DIC abundance and composition in their sometimes extreme environments. “Cyanobacteria” are known to have CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to facilitate growth under low CO2 conditions. These CCMs consist of carboxysomes, containing enzymes ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate oxygenase and carbonic anhydrase, partnered to DIC transporters. CCMs and their DIC transporters have been studied in a handful of other prokaryotes, but it was not known how common CCMs were beyond “Cyanobacteria”. Since it had previously been noted that genes encoding potential transporters were found neighboring carboxysome loci, α-carboxysome loci were gathered from bacterial genomes, and potential transporter genes neighboring these loci are described here. Members of transporter families whose members all transport DIC (CHC, MDT and Sbt) were common in these neighborhoods, as were members of the SulP transporter family, many of which transport DIC. 109 of 115 taxa with carboxysome loci have some form of DIC transporter encoded in their genomes, suggesting that CCMs consisting of carboxysomes and DIC transporters are widespread not only among “Cyanobacteria”, but also among members of “Proteobacteria” andmore »“Actinobacteria”.« less