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  1. Hurricane evacuation has become an increasingly complicated activity in the U.S. as it involves moving many people who live along the Atlantic coast and Gulf coast within a very limited time. A good deal of research has been conducted on hurricane evacuation, but only a limited number of studies have looked into the timing aspect of evacuation. This paper intends to contribute to the literature on evacuation timing decisions by investigating what factors influence the time preference at the household level. Two hurricane survey data sets were used to analyze household evacuation behaviors across the Gulf coast as well asmore »the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic coast in a comparative perspective. Using the Heckman selection model, we examined various factors identified in the literature on the two possible outcomes (evacuation and early evacuation). We found that the most important determinants of evacuation were prior evacuation experience, evacuation orders, and risk perceptions, while the most important determinants of early evacuation were prior evacuation experiences, days spent at the evacuation destination, and the cost of evacuation. Socioeconomic factors also influenced the two decisions but differently. These results provide implications for future hurricane evacuation planning and for improving emergency management practices.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2023
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  3. We study evacuation dynamics in a major urban region (Miami, FL) using a combination of a realistic population and social contact network, and an agent-based model of evacuation behavior that takes into account peer influence and concerns of looting. These factors have been shown to be important in prior work, and have been modeled as a threshold-based network dynamical systems model (2mode-threshold), which involves two threshold parameters|for a family's decision to evacuate and to remain in place for looting and crime concerns|based on the fraction of neighbors who have evacuated. The dynamics of such models are not well understood, andmore »we observe that the threshold parameters have a significant impact on the evacuation dynamics. We also observe counter-intuitive effects of increasing the evacuation threshold on the evacuated fraction in some regimes of the model parameter space, which suggests that the details of realistic networks matter in designing policies.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  4. Data from surveys administered after Hurricane Sandy provide a wealth of information that can be used to develop models of evacuation decision-making. We use a model based on survey data for predicting whether or not a family will evacuate. The model uses 26 features for each household including its neighborhood characteristics. We augment a 1.7 million node household-level synthetic social network of Miami, Florida with public data for the requisite model features so that our population is consistent with the survey-based model. Results show that household features that drive hurricane evacuations dominate the effects of specifying large numbers of familiesmore »as \early evacuators" in a contagion process, and also dominate effects of peer influence to evacuate. There is a strong network-based evacuation suppression effect from the fear of looting. We also study spatial factors affecting evacuation rates as well as policy interventions to encourage evacuation.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  6. This article deals with household-level flood risk mitigation. We present an agent-based modeling framework to simulate the mechanism of natural hazard and human interactions, to allow evaluation of community flood risk, and to predict various adaptation outcomes. The framework considers each household as an autonomous, yet socially connected, agent. A Beta-Bernoulli Bayesian learning model is first applied to measure changes of agents' risk perceptions in response to stochastic storm surges. Then the risk appraisal behaviors of agents, as a function of willingness-to-pay for flood insurance, are measured. Using Miami-Dade County, Florida as a case study, we simulated four scenarios tomore »evaluate the outcomes of alternative adaptation strategies. Results show that community damage decreases significantly after a few years when agents become cognizant of flood risks. Compared to insurance policies with pre-Flood Insurance Rate Maps subsidies, risk-based insurance policies are more effective in promoting community resilience, but it will decrease motivations to purchase flood insurance, especially for households outside of high-risk areas. We evaluated vital model parameters using a local sensitivity analysis. Simulation results demonstrate the importance of an integrated adaptation strategy in community flood risk management.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available November 12, 2022
  7. We analyzed data from a survey administered to 1,212 respondents living in superstorm Hurricane Sandy-affected areas. We estimated the effect of having experienced hurricane-induced disruptions to utility services, such as electricity, water, gas, phone service, and public transportation, on having an evacuation plan. Around 39% of respondents reported having an evacuation plan in case a hurricane affects their neighborhood this year. Respondents who had experienced disruptions to electricity supply had an approximately 11 percentage-point higher likelihood of having an evacuation plan than those who had experienced no such disruptions. Respondents who had experienced monetary losses from Hurricane Sandy had aroundmore »a five percentage-point higher likelihood of having an evacuation plan compared with those who had not. Among control variables, prior evacuation, distance to the coastline, residence in a flood zone, concern about the impacts of future natural disaster events, had window protection, and household members being disabled, each had an association with residents’ future evacuation planning and hurricane preparedness. In light of these findings, we discuss the policy implications of our findings for improving disaster management in hurricane-prone areas.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2022
  8. Recent climatic disasters have shown the vulnerability of transportation infrastructures against natural hazards. To understand the risk of coastal hazards on urban travel activities, this study presents an activity-based modeling approach to evaluate the impacts of storm surge on the transportation network under sea-level rise in Miami-Dade County, FL. A Markov-Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) based algorithm is applied to generate population attributes and travel diaries in the model simulation. Flooding scenarios in 2045 are developed based on different adaptation standards under the 100-year storm surge and population projections are from the land-use conflict identification strategy (LUCIS) model. Our analysis indicatesmore »that about 29.3% of the transportation infrastructure, including areas of the US No. 1 highway, roadways in the south and southwest of the county, and bridges connecting Miami Beach area, will be damaged under the storm surge when a low-level adaptation standard is chosen. However, the high-level adaptation standard will reduce the vulnerable infrastructures to 12.4%. Furthermore, the total increased travel time of the low-level adaptation standard could be as high as twice of that in the high-level adaptation standard during peak morning hours. Our model results also reveal that the average increased travel time due to future storm surge damage ranges between 14.2 and 62.8 min per trip.« less