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    We present a per cent-level accurate model of the line-of-sight velocity distribution of galaxies around dark matter haloes as a function of projected radius and halo mass. The model is developed and tested using synthetic galaxy catalogues generated with the UniverseMachine run on the Multi-Dark Planck 2 N-body simulations. The model decomposes the galaxies around a cluster into three kinematically distinct classes: orbiting, infalling, and interloping galaxies. We demonstrate that: (1) we can statistically distinguish between these three types of galaxies using only projected line-of-sight velocity information; (2) the halo edge radius inferred from the line-of-sight velocity dispersion is an excellent proxy for the three-dimensional halo edge radius; and (3) we can accurately recover the full velocity dispersion profile for each of the three populations of galaxies. Importantly, the velocity dispersion profiles of the orbiting and infalling galaxies contain five independent parameters – three distinct radial scales and two velocity dispersion amplitudes – each of which is correlated with mass. Thus, the velocity dispersion profile of galaxy clusters has inherent redundancies that allow us to perform non-trivial systematics checks from a single data set. We discuss several potential applications of our new model for detecting the edge radius and constraining cosmology andmore »astrophysics using upcoming spectroscopic surveys.

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    Dark matter haloes have long been recognized as one of the fundamental building blocks of large-scale structure formation models. Despite their importance – or perhaps because of it! – halo definitions continue to evolve towards more physically motivated criteria. Here, we propose a new definition that is physically motivated, effectively unique, and parameter-free: ‘A dark matter halo is comprised of the collection of particles orbiting in their own self-generated potential’. This definition is enabled by the fact that, even with as few as ≈300 particles per halo, nearly every particle in the vicinity of a halo can be uniquely classified as either orbiting or infalling based on its dynamical history. For brevity, we refer to haloes selected in this way as physical haloes. We demonstrate that (1) the mass function of physical haloes is Press–Schechter, provided the critical threshold for collapse is allowed to vary slowly with peak height; and (2) the peak-background split prediction of the clustering amplitude of physical haloes is statistically consistent with the simulation data, with accuracy no worse than ≈5 per cent.

  3. Abstract

    Halos of similar mass and redshift exhibit a large degree of variability in their differential properties, such as dark matter, hot gas, and stellar mass density profiles. This variability is an indicator of diversity in the formation history of these dark matter halos that is reflected in the coupling of scatters about the mean relations. In this work, we show that the strength of this coupling depends on the scale at which halo profiles are measured. By analyzing the outputs of the IllustrisTNG hydrodynamical cosmological simulations, we report the radial- and mass-dependent couplings between the dark matter, hot gas, and stellar mass radial density profiles utilizing the population diversity in dark matter halos. We find that for the same mass halos, the scatters in the density of baryons and dark matter are strongly coupled at large scales (r>R200), but the coupling between gas and dark matter density profiles fades near the core of halos (r< 0.3R200). We then show that the correlation between halo profile and integrated quantities induces a radius-dependent additive bias in the profile observables of halos when halos are selected on properties other than their mass. We discuss the impact of this effect on cluster abundancemore »and cross-correlation cosmology with multiwavelength cosmological surveys.

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    We develop a machine-learning (ML) algorithm that generates high-resolution thermal Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) maps of novel galaxy clusters given only halo mass and mass accretion rate (MAR). The algorithm uses a conditional variational autoencoder (CVAE) in the form of a convolutional neural network and is trained with SZ maps generated from the IllustrisTNG simulation. Our method can reproduce many of the details of galaxy clusters that analytical models usually lack, such as internal structure and aspherical distribution of gas created by mergers, while achieving the same computational feasibility, allowing us to generate mock SZ maps for over 105 clusters in 30 s on a laptop. We show that the model is capable of generating novel clusters (i.e. not found in the training set) and that the model accurately reproduces the effects of mass and MAR on the SZ images, such as scatter, asymmetry, and concentration, in addition to modelling merging sub-clusters. This work demonstrates the viability of ML-based methods for producing the number of realistic, high-resolution maps of galaxy clusters necessary to achieve statistical constraints from future SZ surveys.

  5. Abstract Uncertain feedback processes in galaxies affect the distribution of matter, currently limiting the power of weak lensing surveys. If we can identify cosmological statistics that are robust against these uncertainties, or constrain these effects by other means, then we can enhance the power of current and upcoming observations from weak lensing surveys such as DES, Euclid, the Rubin Observatory, and the Roman Space Telescope. In this work, we investigate the potential of the electron density auto-power spectrum as a robust probe of cosmology and baryonic feedback. We use a suite of (magneto-)hydrodynamic simulations from the CAMELS project and perform an idealized analysis to forecast statistical uncertainties on a limited set of cosmological and physically-motivated astrophysical parameters. We find that the electron number density auto-correlation, measurable through either kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich observations or through Fast Radio Burst dispersion measures, provides tight constraints on Ω m and the mean baryon fraction in intermediate-mass halos, f̅ bar . By obtaining an empirical measure for the associated systematic uncertainties, we find these constraints to be largely robust to differences in baryonic feedback models implemented in hydrodynamic simulations. We further discuss the main caveats associated with our analysis, and point out possible directions for futuremore »work.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  6. Abstract Galaxies can be characterized by many internal properties such as stellar mass, gas metallicity, and star formation rate. We quantify the amount of cosmological and astrophysical information that the internal properties of individual galaxies and their host dark matter halos contain. We train neural networks using hundreds of thousands of galaxies from 2000 state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations with different cosmologies and astrophysical models of the CAMELS project to perform likelihood-free inference on the value of the cosmological and astrophysical parameters. We find that knowing the internal properties of a single galaxy allows our models to infer the value of Ω m , at fixed Ω b , with a ∼10% precision, while no constraint can be placed on σ 8 . Our results hold for any type of galaxy, central or satellite, massive or dwarf, at all considered redshifts, z ≤ 3, and they incorporate uncertainties in astrophysics as modeled in CAMELS. However, our models are not robust to changes in subgrid physics due to the large intrinsic differences the two considered models imprint on galaxy properties. We find that the stellar mass, stellar metallicity, and maximum circular velocity are among the most important galaxy properties to determine the valuemore »of Ω m . We believe that our results can be explained by considering that changes in the value of Ω m , or potentially Ω b /Ω m , affect the dark matter content of galaxies, which leaves a signature in galaxy properties distinct from the one induced by galactic processes. Our results suggest that the low-dimensional manifold hosting galaxy properties provides a tight direct link between cosmology and astrophysics.« less
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023
  7. Abstract We forecast the number of galaxy clusters that can be detected via the thermal Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (tSZ) signals by future cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, primarily the wide area survey of the CMB-S4 experiment but also CMB-S4's smaller de-lensing survey and the proposed CMB-HD experiment. We predict that CMB-S4 will detect 75,000 clusters with its wide survey of f sky = 50% and 14,000 clusters with its deep survey of f sky = 3%. Of these, approximately 1350 clusters will be at z ≥ 2, a regime that is difficult to probe by optical or X-ray surveys. We assume CMB-HD will survey the same sky as the S4-Wide, and find that CMB-HD will detect three times more overall and an order of magnitude more z ≥ 2 clusters than CMB-S4. These results include galactic and extragalactic foregrounds along with atmospheric and instrumental noise. Using CMB-cluster lensing to calibrate the cluster tSZ–mass scaling relation, we combine cluster counts with primary CMB to obtain cosmological constraints for a two-parameter extension of the standard model (ΛCDM + ∑ m ν + w 0 ). In addition to constraining σ ( w 0 ) to ≲1%, we find that both surveys can enable amore »∼2.5–4.5 σ detection of ∑ m ν , substantially strengthening CMB-only constraints. We also study the evolution of the intracluster medium by modeling the cluster virialization v( z ) and find tight constraints from CMB-S4, with further factors of three to four improvement for CMB-HD.« less
  8. Abstract

    It is important to understand the cycle of baryons through the circumgalactic medium (CGM) in the context of galaxy formation and evolution. In this study, we forecast constraints on the feedback processes heating the CGM with current and future Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) observations. To constrain these processes, we use a suite of cosmological simulations, the Cosmology and Astrophysics with MachinE Learning Simulations (CAMELS). CAMELS varies four different feedback parameters of two previously existing hydrodynamical simulations, IllustrisTNG and SIMBA. We capture the dependences of SZ radial profiles on these feedback parameters with an emulator, calculate their derivatives, and forecast future constraints on these feedback parameters from upcoming experiments. We find that for a galaxy sample similar to what would be obtained with the Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument at the Simons Observatory, all four feedback parameters can be constrained (some within the 10% level), indicating that future observations will be able to further restrict the parameter space for these subgrid models. Given the modeled galaxy sample and forecasted errors in this work, we find that the inner SZ profiles contribute more to the constraining power than the outer profiles. Finally, we find that, despite the wide range of parameter variation in activemore »galactic feedback in the CAMELS simulation suite, we cannot reproduce the thermal SZ signal of galaxies selected by the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey as measured by the Atacama Cosmology Telescope.

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    Galaxy cluster masses, rich with cosmological information, can be estimated from internal dark matter (DM) velocity dispersions, which in turn can be observationally inferred from satellite galaxy velocities. However, galaxies are biased tracers of the DM, and the bias can vary over host halo and galaxy properties as well as time. We precisely calibrate the velocity bias, bv – defined as the ratio of galaxy and DM velocity dispersions – as a function of redshift, host halo mass, and galaxy stellar mass threshold ($M_{\rm \star , sat}$), for massive haloes ($M_{\rm 200c}\gt 10^{13.5} \, {\rm M}_\odot$) from five cosmological simulations: IllustrisTNG, Magneticum, Bahamas + Macsis, The Three Hundred Project, and MultiDark Planck-2. We first compare scaling relations for galaxy and DM velocity dispersion across simulations; the former is estimated using a new ensemble velocity likelihood method that is unbiased for low galaxy counts per halo, while the latter uses a local linear regression. The simulations show consistent trends of bv increasing with M200c and decreasing with redshift and $M_{\rm \star , sat}$. The ensemble-estimated theoretical uncertainty in bv is 2–3 per cent, but becomes percent-level when considering only the three highest resolution simulations. We update the mass–richness normalization for an SDSSmore »redMaPPer cluster sample, and find our improved bv estimates reduce the normalization uncertainty from 22 to 8 per cent, demonstrating that dynamical mass estimation is competitive with weak lensing mass estimation. We discuss necessary steps for further improving this precision. Our estimates for $b_v(M_{\rm 200c}, M_{\rm \star , sat}, z)$ are made publicly available.

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  10. Abstract We present the Cosmology and Astrophysics with Machine Learning Simulations (CAMELS) Multifield Data set (CMD), a collection of hundreds of thousands of 2D maps and 3D grids containing many different properties of cosmic gas, dark matter, and stars from more than 2000 distinct simulated universes at several cosmic times. The 2D maps and 3D grids represent cosmic regions that span ∼100 million light-years and have been generated from thousands of state-of-the-art hydrodynamic and gravity-only N -body simulations from the CAMELS project. Designed to train machine-learning models, CMD is the largest data set of its kind containing more than 70 TB of data. In this paper we describe CMD in detail and outline a few of its applications. We focus our attention on one such task, parameter inference, formulating the problems we face as a challenge to the community. We release all data and provide further technical details at .
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available April 1, 2023