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  1. Abstract

    Two-dimensional electron systems subjected to high transverse magnetic fields can exhibit Fractional Quantum Hall Effects (FQHE). In the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron system, a double degeneracy of Landau levels due to electron-spin, is removed by a small Zeeman spin splitting,$$g \mu _B B$$gμBB, comparable to the correlation energy. Then, a change of the Zeeman splitting relative to the correlation energy can lead to a re-ordering between spin polarized, partially polarized, and unpolarized many body ground states at a constant filling factor. We show here that tuning the spin energy can produce fractionally quantized Hall effect transitions that include both a change in$$\nu$$νfor the$$R_{xx}$$Rxxminimum, e.g., from$$\nu = 11/7$$ν=11/7to$$\nu = 8/5$$ν=8/5, and a corresponding change in the$$R_{xy}$$Rxy, e.g., from$$R_{xy}/R_{K} = (11/7)^{-1}$$Rxy/RK=(11/7)-1to$$R_{xy}/R_{K} = (8/5)^{-1}$$Rxy/RK=(8/5)-1, with increasing tilt angle. Further, we exhibit a striking size dependence in the tilt angle interval for the vanishing of the$$\nu = 4/3$$ν=4/3and$$\nu = 7/5$$ν=7/5resistance minima, including “avoided crossing” type lineshape characteristics, and observable shifts of$$R_{xy}$$Rxyat the$$R_{xx}$$Rxxminima- the latter occurring for$$\nu = 4/3, 7/5$$ν=4/3,7/5and the 10/7. The results demonstrate both size dependence and the possibility, not just of competition between different spin polarized states at the same$$\nu$$νand$$R_{xy}$$Rxy, but also the tilt- or Zeeman-energy-dependent- crossover between distinct FQHE associated with different Hall resistances.

     
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  2. ABSTRACT CVD graphene growth typically uses commercially available cold-rolled copper foils, which includes a rich topography with scratches, dents, pits, and peaks. The graphene grown on this topography, even after annealing the foil, tends to include and reflect these topographic features. Further, the transfer of such CVD graphene to a flat substrate using a polymer transfer method also introduces wrinkles. Here, we examine an electropolishing technique for reducing native foil defects, characterize the resulting foil surface, grow single-crystal graphene on the polished foil, and examine the quality of the graphene for such defects. 
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  3. ABSTRACT Graphene specimens produced by chemical vapor deposition usually show p-type characteristics and significant hysteresis in ambient conditions. Among many methods, current annealing appears to be a better way of cleaning the sample due to the possibility of in-situ annealing in the measurement setup. However, long-time current annealing could increase defects in the underlying substrate. Studying the hysteresis with different anneal currents in a graphene device is, therefore, a topic of interest. In this experimental work, we investigate electron/hole transport in a graphene sample in the form of a Hall bar device with a back gate, where the graphene was prepared using chemical vapor deposition on copper foils. We study the hysteresis before and after current annealing the sample by cooling down to a temperature of 35 Kfrom room temperature with a back-gate bias in a closed cycle refrigerator. 
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