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  1. Abstract

    Coastal physical processes are essential for the cross‐shore transport of meroplanktonic larvae to their benthic adult habitats. To investigate these processes, we released a swarm of novel, trackable, subsurface vehicles, the Mini‐Autonomous Underwater Explorers (M‐AUEs), which we programmed to mimic larval depth‐keeping behavior. The M‐AUE swarm measured a sudden net onshore transport of 30–70 m over 15–20 min, which we investigated in detail. Here, we describe a novel transport mechanism of depth‐keeping plankton revealed by these observations. In situ measurements and models showed that, as a weakly nonlinear internal wave propagated through the swarm, it deformed surface‐intensified, along‐isopycnal background velocities downward, accelerating depth‐keeping organisms onshore. These higher velocities increased both the depth‐keepers' residence time in the wave and total cross‐shore displacement, leading to wave‐induced transports twice those of fully Lagrangian organisms and four times those associated with the unperturbed background currents. Our analyses also show that integrating velocity time series from virtual larvae or mimics moving with the flow yields both larger and more accurate transport estimates than integrating velocity time series obtained at a point (Eulerian). The increased cross‐shore transport of organisms capable of vertical swimming in this wave/background‐current system is mathematically analogous to the increase in onshore transport associated with horizontal swimming in highly nonlinear internal waves. However, the mechanism described here requires much weaker swimming speeds (mm s−1vs. cm s−1) to achieve significant onshore transports, and meroplanktonic larvae only need to orient themselves vertically, not horizontally.

     
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  2. Abstract

    Cross‐shore velocities in the coastal ocean typically vary with depth. The direction and magnitude of transport experienced by meroplanktonic larvae will therefore be influenced by their vertical position. To quantify how swimming behavior and vertical position in internal waves influence larval cross‐shore transport in the shallow (~ 20 m), stratified coastal waters off Southern California, we deployed swarms of novel, subsurface larval mimics, the Mini‐Autonomous Underwater Explorers (M‐AUEs). The M‐AUEs were programmed to maintain a specified depth, and were deployed near a mooring. Transport of the M‐AUEs was predominantly onshore, with average velocities up to 14 cm s−1. To put the M‐AUE deployments into a broader context, we simulated > 500 individual high‐frequency internal waves observed at the mooring over a 14‐d deployment; in each internal wave, we released both depth‐keeping and passive virtual larvae every meter in the vertical. After the waves' passage, depth‐keeping virtual larvae were usually found closer to shore than passive larvae released at the same depth. Near the top of the water column (3–5‐m depth), ~ 20% of internal waves enhanced onshore transport of depth‐keeping virtual larvae by ≥ 50 m, whereas only 1% of waves gave similar enhancements to passive larvae. Our observations and simulations showed that depth‐keeping behavior in high‐frequency internal waves resulted in enhanced onshore transport at the top of the water column, and reduced offshore dispersal at the bottom, compared to being passive. Thus, even weak depth‐keeping may allow larvae to reach nearshore adult habitats more reliably than drifting passively.

     
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