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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available December 1, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available May 1, 2024
  3. Early fault detection in rolling element bearings is pivotal for the effective predictive maintenance of rotating machinery. Deep Learning (DL) methods have been widely studied for vibration-based bearing fault diagnostics largely because of their capability to automatically extract fault-related features from raw or processed vibration data. Although most DL models in the current literature can provide fairly accurate classification outputs, the typical diagnostic procedure is performed in an offline environment utilizing powerful computers. This centralized approach can lead to unacceptable delays in safety-critical applications and can prohibit cost-sensitive wireless data collection. Meanwhile, very few studies have reported on deploying DL models on microprocessor-based Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) devices, where edge computing can give users a real-time evaluation of bearing health without requiring expensive computational infrastructure. This paper demonstrates an IIoT deployment of a physics-informed DL model inside a commercially available wireless vibration sensor for online health classification. The diagnostic model here is developed and trained offline, and the trained model is then deployed inside the embedded system for online prediction. We demonstrate the model’s online diagnostic performance by imitating bearing vibration signals on a vibration shaker and by performing edge computing on the embedded system mounted on the shaker. 
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  4. Failure prognostics is the process of predicting the remaining useful life (RUL) of machine components, which is vital for the predictive maintenance of industrial machinery. This paper presents a new deep learning approach for failure prognostics of rolling element bearings based on a Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) predictor trained simultaneously within a Generative Adversarial Network (GAN) architecture. The LSTM predictor takes the current and past observations of a well-defined health index as an input, uses those to forecast the future degradation trajectory, and then derives the RUL. Our proposed approach has three unique features: (1) Defining the bearing failure threshold by adopting an International Organization of Standardization (ISO) standard, making the approach industry-relevant; (2) Employing a GAN-based data augmentation technique to improve the accuracy and robustness of RUL prediction in cases where the deep learning model has access to only a small amount of training data; (3) Integrating the training process of the LSTM predictor within the GAN architecture. A joint training approach is utilized to ensure that the LSTM predictor model learns both the original and artificially generated data to capture the degradation trajectories. We utilize a publicly available accelerated run-to-failure dataset of rolling element bearings to assess the performance of the proposed approach. Results of a five-fold cross-validation study show that the integration of the LSTM predictor with GAN helps to decrease the average RUL prediction error by 29% over a simple LSTM model without GAN implementation. 
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