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Effects of Printing Layer Orientation on the High-Frequency Bending-Fatigue Life and Tensile Strength of Additively Manufactured 17-4 PH Stainless SteelIn this paper, small blocks of 17-4 PH stainless steel were manufactured via extrusion-based bound powder extrusion (BPE)/atomic diffusion additive manufacturing (ADAM) technology in two different orientations. Ultrasonic bending-fatigue and uniaxial tensile tests were carried out on the test specimens prepared from the AM blocks. Specifically, a recently-introduced small-size specimen design is employed to carry out time-efficient fatigue tests. Based on the results of the testing, the stress–life (S-N) curves were created in the very high-cycle fatigue (VHCF) regime. The effects of the printing orientation on the fatigue life and tensile strength were discussed, supported by fractography taken from the specimens’ fracture surfaces. The findings of the tensile test and the fatigue test revealed that vertically-oriented test specimens had lower ductility and a shorter fatigue life than their horizontally-oriented counterparts. The resulting S-N curves were also compared against existing data in the open literature. It is concluded that the large-sized pores (which originated from the extrusion process) along the track boundaries strongly affect the fatigue life and elongation of the AM parts.Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2024
In this paper, the phase structure, composition distribution, grain morphology, and hardness of Al6061 alloy samples made with additive friction stir deposition (AFS-D) were examined. A nearly symmetrical layer-by-layer structure was observed in the cross section (vertical with respect to the fabrication-tool traversing direction) of the as-deposited Al6061 alloy samples made with a back-and-forth AFS-D strategy. Equiaxed grains were observed in the region underneath the fabrication tool, while elongated grains were seen in the “flash region” along the mass flow direction. No clear grain size variance was discovered along the AFS-D build direction except for the last deposited layer. Grains were significantly refined from the feedstock (~163.5 µm) to as-deposited Al6061 alloy parts (~8.5 µm). The hardness of the as-fabricated Al6061 alloy was lower than those of the feedstock and their heat-treated counterparts, which was ascribed to the decreased precipitate content and enlarged precipitate size.