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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available July 4, 2024
  2. Free, publicly-accessible full text available October 1, 2024
  3. The prototypical chalcogenide perovskite, BaZrS3 (BZS), with its direct bandgap of 1.7–1.8 eV, high chemical stability, and strong light–matter interactions, has garnered significant interest over the past few years. So far, attempts to grow BaZrS3 films have been limited mainly to physical vapor deposition techniques. Here, we report the fabrication of BZS thin films via a facile aqueous solution route of polymer-assisted deposition (PAD), where the polymer-chelated cation precursor films were sulfurized in a mixed CS2 and Ar atmosphere. The formation of a single-phase polycrystalline BZS thin film at a processing temperature of 900 °C was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The stoichiometry of the films was verified by Rutherford Backscattering spectrometry and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The BZS films showed a photoluminescence peak at around 1.8 eV and exhibited a photogenerated current under light illumination at a wavelength of 530 nm. Temperature-dependent resistivity analysis revealed that the conduction of BaZrS3 films under the dark condition could be described by the Efros–Shklovskii variable range hopping model in the temperature range of 60–300 K, with an activation energy of about 44 meV. 
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  4. Perovskite offers a framework that boasts various functionalities and physical properties of interest such as ferroelectricity, magnetic orderings, multiferroicity, superconductivity, semiconductor, and optoelectronic properties owing to their rich compositional diversity. These properties are also uniquely tied to their crystal distortion which is directly affected by lattice strain. Therefore, many important properties of perovskite can be further tuned through strain engineering which can be accomplished by chemical doping or simply element substitution, interface engineering in epitaxial thin films, and special architectures such as nanocomposites. In this review, we focus on and highlight the structure–property relationships of perovskite metal oxide films and elucidate the principles to manipulate the functionalities through different modalities of strain engineering approaches. 
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  5. Abstract

    Magnetoelectric coupling is achieved near room temperature in a spin crossover FeIImolecule‐based compound,[Fe(1bpp)2](BF4)2. Large atomic displacements resulting from Jahn–Teller distortions induce a change in the molecule dipole moment when switching between high‐spin and low‐spin states leading to a step‐wise change in the electric polarization and dielectric constant. For temperatures in the region of bistability, the changes in magnetic and electrical properties are induced with a remarkably low magnetic field of 3 T. This result represents a successful expansion of magnetoelectric spin crossovers towards ambient conditions. Moreover, the observed 0.3–0.4 mC m−2changes in theH‐induced electric polarization suggest that the high strength of the coupling obtained via this route is accessible not just at cryogenic temperatures but also near room temperature, a feature that is especially appealing in the light of practical applications.

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  6. Interface‐type (IT) metal/oxide Schottky memristive devices have attracted considerable attention over filament‐type (FT) devices for neuromorphic computing because of their uniform, filament‐free, and analog resistive switching (RS) characteristics. The most recent IT devices are based on oxygen ions and vacancies movement to alter interfacial Schottky barrier parameters and thereby control RS properties. However, the reliability and stability of these devices have been significantly affected by the undesired diffusion of ionic species. Herein, a reliable interface‐dominated memristive device is demonstrated using a simple Au/Nb‐doped SrTiO3(Nb:STO) Schottky structure. The Au/Nb:STO Schottky barrier modulation by charge trapping and detrapping is responsible for the analog resistive switching characteristics. Because of its interface‐controlled RS, the proposed device shows low device‐to‐device, cell‐to‐cell, and cycle‐to‐cycle variability while maintaining high repeatability and stability during endurance and retention tests. Furthermore, the Au/Nb:STO IT memristive device exhibits versatile synaptic functions with an excellent uniformity, programmability, and reliability. A simulated artificial neural network with Au/Nb:STO synapses achieves a high recognition accuracy of 94.72% for large digit recognition from MNIST database. These results suggest that IT resistive switching can be potentially used for artificial synapses to build next‐generation neuromorphic computing.

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  7. Abstract

    Interface‐type (IT) resistive switching (RS) memories are promising for next generation memory and computing technologies owing to the filament‐free switching, high on/off ratio, low power consumption, and low spatial variability. Although the switching mechanisms of memristors have been widely studied in filament‐type devices, they are largely unknown in IT memristors. In this work, using the simple Au/Nb:SrTiO3(Nb:STO) as a model Schottky system, it is identified that protons from moisture are key element in determining the RS characteristics in IT memristors. The Au/Nb:STO devices show typical Schottky interface controlled current–voltage (IV) curves with a large on/off ratio under ambient conditions. Surprisingly, in a controlled environment without protons/moisture, the largeIVhysteresis collapses with the disappearance of a high resistance state (HRS) and the Schottky barrier. Once the devices are re‐exposed to a humid environment, the typical largeIVhysteresis can be recovered within hours as the HRS and Schottky interface are restored. The RS mechanism in Au/Nb:STO is attributed to the Schottky barrier modulation by a proton assisted electron trapping and detrapping process. This work highlights the important role of protons/moisture in the RS properties of IT memristors and provides fundamental insight for switching mechanisms in metal oxides‐based memory devices.

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