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    We introduce an analytic surface density profile for dark matter haloes that accurately reproduces the structure of simulated haloes of mass Mvir = 107–1011 M⊙, making it useful for modelling line-of-sight (LOS) perturbers in strong gravitational lensing models. The two-parameter function has an analytic deflection potential and is more accurate than the projected Navarro, Frenk, and White profile commonly adopted at this mass scale for perturbers, especially at the small radii of most relevant for lensing perturbations. Using a characteristic radius, R−1, where the log slope of surface density is equal to −1, and an associated surface density, Σ−1, we can represent the expected lensing signal from LOS haloes statistically, for an ensemble of halo orientations, using a distribution of projected concentration parameters, $\mathcal {C}_{\rm vir} := r_{\rm vir}/ R_{-1}$. Though an individual halo can have a projected concentration that varies with orientation with respect to the observer, the range of projected concentrations correlates with the usual three-dimensional halo concentration in a way that enables ease of use.

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    One of the frontiers for advancing what is known about dark matter lies in using strong gravitational lenses to characterize the population of the smallest dark matter haloes. There is a large volume of information in strong gravitational lens images – the question we seek to answer is to what extent we can refine this information. To this end, we forecast the detectability of a mixed warm and cold dark matter scenario using the anomalous flux ratio method from strong gravitational lensed images. The halo mass function of the mixed dark matter scenario is suppressed relative to cold dark matter but still predicts numerous low-mass dark matter haloes relative to warm dark matter. Since the strong lensing signal receives a contribution from a range of dark matter halo masses and since the signal is sensitive to the specific configuration of dark matter haloes, not just the halo mass function, degeneracies between different forms of suppression in the halo mass function, relative to cold dark matter, can arise. We find that, with a set of lenses with different configurations of the main deflector and hence different sensitivities to different mass ranges of the halo mass function, the different forms of suppression of the halo mass function between the warm dark matter model and the mixed dark matter model can be distinguished with 40 lenses with Bayesian odds of 30:1.

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    The primordial matter power spectrum quantifies fluctuations in the distribution of dark matter immediately following inflation. Over cosmic time, overdense regions of the primordial density field grow and collapse into dark matter haloes, whose abundance and density profiles retain memory of the initial conditions. By analysing the image magnifications in 11 strongly lensed and quadruply imaged quasars, we infer the abundance and concentrations of low-mass haloes, and cast the measurement in terms of the amplitude of the primordial matter power spectrum. We anchor the power spectrum on large scales, isolating the effect of small-scale deviations from the Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) prediction. Assuming an analytic model for the power spectrum and accounting for several sources of potential systematic uncertainty, including three different models for the halo mass function, we obtain correlated inferences of $\log _{10}\left(P / P_{\Lambda \rm {CDM}}\right)$, the power spectrum amplitude relative to the predictions of the concordance cosmological model, of $0.0_{-0.4}^{+0.5}$, $0.1_{-0.6}^{+0.7}$, and $0.2_{-0.9}^{+1.0}$ at k = 10, 25, and 50 $\rm {Mpc^{-1}}$ at $68 {{\ \rm per\ cent}}$ confidence, consistent with CDM and single-field slow-roll inflation.

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  4. null (Ed.)
  5. ABSTRACT The satellite populations of the Milky Way, and Milky Way mass galaxies in the local Universe, have been extensively studied to constrain dark matter and galaxy evolution physics. Recently, there has been a shift to studying satellites of hosts with stellar masses between that of the Large Magellanic Cloud and the Milky Way, since they can provide further insight on hierarchical structure formation, environmental effects on satellites, and the nature of dark matter. Most work is focused on the Local Volume, and little is still known about low-mass host galaxies at higher redshift. To improve our understanding of the evolution of satellite populations of low-mass hosts, we study satellite galaxy populations as a function of host stellar mass 9.5 < log (M*/M⊙) < 10.5 and redshifts 0.1 < $z$ < 0.8 in the COSMOS survey, making this the first study of satellite systems of low-mass hosts across half the age of the universe. We find that the satellite populations of low-mass host galaxies, which we measure down to satellite masses equivalent to the Fornax dwarf spheroidal satellite of the Milky Way, remain mostly unchanged through time. We observe a weak dependence between host stellar mass and number of satellites per host, which suggests that the stellar masses of the hosts are in the power-law regime of the stellar mass to halo mass relation (M*–Mhalo) for low-mass galaxies. Finally, we test the constraining power of our measured cumulative luminosity function to calculate the low-mass end slope of the M*–Mhalo relation. These new satellite luminosity function measurements are consistent with Lamda cold dark matter predictions. 
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  6. Abstract The mass-concentration relation of dark matter halos reflects the assembly history of objects in hierarchical structure formation scenarios, and depends on fundamental quantities in cosmology such as the slope of the primordial matter power-spectrum. This relation is unconstrained by observations on sub-galactic scales. We derive the first measurement of the mass-concentration relation using the image positions and flux ratios from eleven quadruple-image strong gravitational lenses (quads) in the mass range 106 − 1010M⊙, assuming cold dark matter. We model both subhalos and line of sight halos, finite-size background sources, and marginalize over nuisance parameters describing the lens macromodel. We also marginalize over the the logarithmic slope and redshift evolution of the mass-concentration relation, using flat priors that encompass the range of theoretical uncertainty in the literature. At z = 0, we constrain the concentration of 108M⊙ halos $c=12_{-5}^{+6}$ at $68 \%$ CI, and $c=12_{-9}^{+15}$ at $95 \%$ CI. For a 107M⊙ halo, we obtain $68 \%$ ($95 \%$) constraints $c=15_{-8}^{+9}$ ($c=15_{-11}^{+18}$), while for 109M⊙ halos $c=10_{-4}^{+7}$ ($c=10_{-7}^{+14}$). These results are consistent with the theoretical predictions from mass-concentration relations in the literature, and establish strong lensing by galaxies as a powerful probe of halo concentrations on sub-galactic scales across cosmological distance. 
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  7. ABSTRACT The free-streaming length of dark matter depends on fundamental dark matter physics, and determines the abundance and concentration of dark matter haloes on sub-galactic scales. Using the image positions and flux ratios from eight quadruply imaged quasars, we constrain the free-streaming length of dark matter and the amplitude of the subhalo mass function (SHMF). We model both main deflector subhaloes and haloes along the line of sight, and account for warm dark matter free-streaming effects on the mass function and mass–concentration relation. By calibrating the scaling of the SHMF with host halo mass and redshift using a suite of simulated haloes, we infer a global normalization for the SHMF. We account for finite-size background sources, and marginalize over the mass profile of the main deflector. Parametrizing dark matter free-streaming through the half-mode mass mhm, we constrain the thermal relic particle mass mDM corresponding to mhm. At $95 \, {\rm per\, cent}$ CI: mhm < 107.8 M⊙ ($m_{\rm {DM}} \gt 5.2 \ \rm {keV}$). We disfavour $m_{\rm {DM}} = 4.0 \,\rm {keV}$ and $m_{\rm {DM}} = 3.0 \,\rm {keV}$ with likelihood ratios of 7:1 and 30:1, respectively, relative to the peak of the posterior distribution. Assuming cold dark matter, we constrain the projected mass in substructure between 106 and 109 M⊙ near lensed images. At $68 \, {\rm per\, cent}$ CI, we infer $2.0{-}6.1 \times 10^{7}\, {{\rm M}_{\odot }}\,\rm {kpc^{-2}}$, corresponding to mean projected mass fraction $\bar{f}_{\rm {sub}} = 0.035_{-0.017}^{+0.021}$. At $95 \, {\rm per\, cent}$ CI, we obtain a lower bound on the projected mass of $0.6 \times 10^{7} \,{{\rm M}_{\odot }}\,\rm {kpc^{-2}}$, corresponding to $\bar{f}_{\rm {sub}} \gt 0.005$. These results agree with the predictions of cold dark matter. 
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  8. null (Ed.)
    ABSTRACT We present the first satellite system of the Large Binocular Telescope Satellites Of Nearby Galaxies Survey (LBT-SONG), a survey to characterize the close satellite populations of Large Magellanic Cloud to Milky-Way-mass, star-forming galaxies in the Local Volume. In this paper, we describe our unresolved diffuse satellite finding and completeness measurement methodology and apply this framework to NGC 628, an isolated galaxy with ∼1/4 the stellar mass of the Milky Way. We present two new dwarf satellite galaxy candidates: NGC 628 dwA, and dwB with MV = −12.2 and −7.7, respectively. NGC 628 dwA is a classical dwarf while NGC 628 dwB is a low-luminosity galaxy that appears to have been quenched after reionization. Completeness corrections indicate that the presence of these two satellites is consistent with CDM predictions. The satellite colours indicate that the galaxies are neither actively star forming nor do they have the purely ancient stellar populations characteristic of ultrafaint dwarfs. Instead, and consistent with our previous work on the NGC 4214 system, they show signs of recent quenching, further indicating that environmental quenching can play a role in modifying satellite populations even for hosts smaller than the Milky Way. 
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