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  1. Free, publicly-accessible full text available August 24, 2023
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  4. David, G. ; Garg, P. ; Kalweit, A. ; Mukherjee, S. ; Ullrich, T. ; Xu, Z. ; Yoo, I.-K. (Ed.)
    The Beam Energy Scan program at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) is searching for the QCD critical point. The main signal for the critical point is the kurtosis of the distribution of proton yields obtained on an event by event basis where one expects a peak at the critical point. However, its exact behavior is still an open question due to out-of-equilibrium effects and uncertainty in the equation of state. Here we use a simplistic hydrodynamic model that enforces strangeness-neutrality, selecting trajectories that pass close to the critical point. We vary the initial conditions to estimate the effect of out-of-equilibrium hydrodynamics on the kurtosis signal.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  5. Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 18, 2023
  6. David, G. ; Garg, P. ; Kalweit, A. ; Mukherjee, S. ; Ullrich, T. ; Xu, Z. ; Yoo, I.-K. (Ed.)
    We investigate the chemical freeze-out in heavy-ion collisions (HICs) and the impact of the hadronic spectrum on thermal model analyses [1, 2]. Detailed knowledge of the hadronic spectrum is still an open question, which has phenomenological consequences on the study of HICs. By varying the number of resonances included in Hadron Resonance Gas (HRG) Model calculations, we can shed light on which particles may be produced. Furthermore, we study the influence of the number of states on the so-called two flavor freezeout scenario, in which strange and light particles can freeze-out separately. We consider results for the chemical freeze-out parameters obtained from thermal model fits and from calculating net-particle fluctuations. We will show the effect of using one global temperature to fit all particles and alternatively, allowing particles with and without strange quarks to freeze-out separately.
    Free, publicly-accessible full text available January 1, 2023
  7. ABSTRACT In this work, we estimate how much bulk viscosity driven by Urca processes is likely to affect the gravitational wave signal of a neutron star coalescence. In the late inspiral, we show that bulk viscosity affects the binding energy at fourth post-Newtonian order. Even though this effect is enhanced by the square of the gravitational compactness, the coefficient of bulk viscosity is likely too small to lead to observable effects in the waveform during the late inspiral, when only considering the orbital motion itself. In the post-merger, however, the characteristic time-scales and spatial scales are different, potentially leading to the opposite conclusion. We post-process data from a state-of-the-art equal-mass binary neutron star merger simulation to estimate the effects of bulk viscosity (which was not included in the simulation itself). In that scenario, we find that bulk viscosity can reach high values in regions of the merger. We compute several estimates of how much it might directly affect the global dynamics of the considered merger scenario, and find that it could become significant. Even larger effects could arise in different merger scenarios or in simulations that include non-linear effects. This assessment is reinforced by a quantitative comparison with relativistic heavy-ionmore »collisions where such effects have been explored extensively.« less